Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by is a Prescription medication manufactured, distributed, or labeled by Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC. Drug facts, warnings, and ingredients follow.
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically important hypotension resulting primarily from vasodilation, in such settings as septic shock or anesthesia. (1)
Dilute before administration. (2.1)
Dosing for Perioperative Hypotension
Dosing for Patients with Vasodilatory Shock
Most common adverse reactions: nausea and vomiting, headache, nervousness (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC at 1-800-551-7176 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.
Phenylephrine hydrochloride must be diluted before administration as bolus intravenous infusion or continuous intravenous infusion.
Inspect the solution for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. The diluted solution should not be held for more than 4 hours at room temperature or for more than 24 hours under refrigerated conditions. Discard any unused portion.
During phenylephrine hydrochloride administration:
For bolus intravenous administration, withdraw 10 mg (1 mL of a 10 mg/mL concentration) of phenylephrine injection and dilute with 99 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. This will yield a final concentration of 100 mcg/mL. Withdraw an appropriate dose from the 100 mcg/mL solution prior to bolus intravenous administration.
For continuous intravenous infusion, withdraw 10 mg (1 mL of 10 mg/mL concentration) of phenylephrine hydrochloride injection and add to 500 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (providing a final concentration of 20 mcg/mL).
In adult patients undergoing surgical procedures with either neuraxial anesthesia or general anesthesia:
In adult patients with septic or other vasodilatory shock:
Because of its pressor effects, phenylephrine hydrochloride can precipitate angina in patients with severe arteriosclerosis or history of angina, exacerbate underlying heart failure, and increase pulmonary arterial pressure.
Phenylephrine hydrochloride can cause severe bradycardia and decreased cardiac output.
The pressor response to adrenergic drugs, including phenylephrine, can be increased in patients with autonomic dysfunction, as may occur with spinal cord injuries.
Extravasation of phenylephrine can cause necrosis or sloughing of tissue.
Oxytocic drugs potentiate the pressor effect of sympathomimetic pressor amines including phenylephrine hydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7.1)], with the potential for hemorrhagic stroke.
Phenylephrine hydrochloride can cause excessive peripheral and visceral vasoconstriction and ischemia to vital organs, particularly in patients with extensive peripheral vascular disease.
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of phenylephrine hydrochloride were identified in the literature. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The pressor effect of phenylephrine hydrochloride is increased in patients receiving:
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with intravenous phenylephrine. It is also not known whether phenylephrine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can
affect reproduction capacity. Phenylephrine hydrochloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
The most common maternal adverse reactions reported in studies of phenylephrine use during neuraxial anesthesia during cesarean delivery include nausea and vomiting, which are commonly associated with hypotension, bradycardia, reactive hypertension, and transient arrhythmias. Phenylephrine does not appear to cause a decrease in placental perfusion sufficient to alter either the neonate Apgar scores or blood-gas status.
Clinical studies of phenylephrine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
In patients with liver cirrhosis [Child Pugh Class A (n=3), Class B (n=5) and Class C (n=1)], dose-response data indicate decreased responsiveness to phenylephrine. Consider using larger doses than usual in hepatic impaired subjects.
Overdose of phenylephrine hydrochloride can cause a rapid rise in blood pressure. Symptoms of overdose include headache, vomiting, hypertension, reflex bradycardia, and cardiac arrhythmias including ventricular extrasystoles and ventricular tachycardia, and may cause a sensation of fullness in the head and tingling of the extremities.
Consider using an α-adrenergic antagonist.
Phenylephrine hydrochloride is a synthetic sympathomimetic agent in sterile form for parenteral injection. Chemically, phenylephrine hydrochloride is (-)-m-Hydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride and has the following structural formula:
Phenylephrine hydrochloride is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in chloroform and ethyl ether. Phenylephrine hydrochloride is sensitive to light.
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a clear, colorless, aqueous solution that is essentially free of visible foreign matter. Each mL contains: Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10 mg; Sodium Chloride 3.5 mg; Sodium Citrate Dihydrate 4 mg; and Citric Acid Monohydrate 1 mg in water for injection. The pH may be adjusted in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 with Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid, if necessary.
Phenylephrine is the active moiety. Metabolites are inactive at both the α-1and α-2 adrenergic receptors. Following parenteral administration of phenylephrine hydrochloride, increases in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and total peripheral vascular resistance are observed. The onset of blood pressure increase following an intravenous bolus phenylephrine hydrochloride administration is rapid and the effect may persist for up to 20 minutes. As mean arterial pressure increases following parenteral doses, vagal activity also increases, resulting in reflex bradycardia.
Most vascular beds are constricted, including renal, splanchnic, and hepatic.
Following an intravenous infusion of phenylephrine hydrochloride, the effective half-life was approximately 5 minutes. The steady-state volume of distribution (340 L) exceeded the body volume by a factor of 5, suggesting a high distribution into certain organ compartments. The average total serum clearance (2095 mL/min) was close to one-third of the cardiac output.
A mass balance study showed that phenylephrine is extensively metabolized by the liver with only 12% of the dose excreted unchanged in the urine. Deamination by monoamino oxidase is the primary metabolic pathway resulting in the formation of the major metabolite (m-hydroxymandelic acid) which accounts for 57% of the total administered dose.
Increases in systolic and mean blood pressure following administration of phenylephrine were observed in 42 literature-based studies in the perioperative setting, including 26 studies where phenylephrine was used in low-risk (ASA 1 and 2) pregnant women undergoing neuraxial anesthesia during cesarean delivery, 3 studies in non-obstetric surgery under neuraxial anesthesia, and 13 studies in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure increases were also observed in two double-blind, active-controlled studies in patients with septic shock.
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, is supplied as follows:
Unit of Sale
Unit of 25
|10 mg per mL||NDC: 63323-751-00
1 mL Single Dose Vial
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F), excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Keep covered in carton until time of use. For single use only. Discard unused portion.
Inform patients, families, or caregivers that the primary side effect of phenylephrine is hypertension and rarely, hypertensive crisis. Patients may experience bradycardia (slow heart rate), which in some cases may produce
heart block or other cardiac arrhythmias, extra ventricular beats, myocardial ischemia in patients with underlying cardiac disease, and pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs) or rales. Common, less serious symptoms include the following:
Lake Zurich, IL 60047
Issued: March 2019
PACKAGE LABEL- PRINCIPAL DISPLAY – Phenylephrine 1 mL Vial Label
NDC: 63323-751-00 751101
10 mg per mL
For Intravenous Use
Dilute Before Use
DISCARD UNUSED PORTION
PROTECT FROM LIGHT
1 mL Single Dose Vial Rx only
PACKAGE LABEL- PRINCIPAL DISPLAY – Phenylephrine 1 mL Vial Carton Label
NDC: 63323-751-01 751101
10 mg per mL
For Intravenous Use
Dilute Before Use
DISCARD UNUSED PORTION
25 x 1 mL Single Dose Vials
phenylephrine hydrochloride injection
|Labeler - Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC (608775388)|
|Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC||784336252||ANALYSIS(63323-751)|
|Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC||023648251||MANUFACTURE(63323-751)|