LEVETIRACETAM tablet, film coated

Levetiracetam by

Drug Labeling and Warnings

Levetiracetam by is a Prescription medication manufactured, distributed, or labeled by Ascend Laboratories, LLC, Alkem Laboratories Limited. Drug facts, warnings, and ingredients follow.

Drug Details [pdf]

  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Partial-Onset Seizures

    Levetiracetam tablets are indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 1 month of age and older.

    1.2 Myoclonic Seizures in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Levetiracetam tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of myoclonic seizures in patients 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    1.3 Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Levetiracetam tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of primary generalized tonic- clonic seizures in patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Important Administration Instructions

    Levetiracetam tablet is given orally with or without food. The levetiracetam dosing regimen depends on the indication, age group, dosage form (tablets or oral solution), and renal function.
    Prescribe the oral solution for pediatric patients with body weight ≤ 20 kg. Prescribe the oral solution or tablets for pediatric patients with body weight above 20 kg.
    When using the oral solution in pediatric patients, dosing is weight-based (mg per kg) using a calibrated measuring device (not a household teaspoon or tablespoon).
    Levetiracetam tablets should be swallowed whole. Levetiracetam tablets should not be chewed or crushed.

    2.2 Dosing for Partial-Onset Seizures

    The recommended dosing for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy is the same; as outlined below.
    Adults 16 Years of Age and Older
    Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Additional dosing increments may be given (1000 mg/day additional every 2 weeks) to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. There is no evidence that doses greater than 3000 mg/day confer additional benefit.
    Pediatric Patients
    1 Month to < 6 Months
    Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 14 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (7 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 14 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 42 mg/kg (21 mg/kg twice daily). In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 35 mg/kg in this age group.
    6 Months to < 4 Years
    Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose in 2 weeks by an increment of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 50 mg/kg (25 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 50 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 47 mg/kg in this age group.
    4 Years to < 16 Years
    Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 60 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 44 mg/kg. The maximum daily dose was 3000 mg/day.
    For levetiracetam tablets dosing in pediatric patients weighing 20 to 40 kg, initiate treatment with a daily dose of 500 mg given as twice daily dosing (250 mg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 500 mg to a maximum recommended daily dose of 1500 mg (750 mg twice daily).
    For levetiracetam tablets dosing in pediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg, initiate treatment with a daily dose of 1000 mg/day given as twice daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 1000 mg/day to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3000 mg (1500 mg twice daily).
    Levetiracetam Oral Solution Weight-Based Dosing Calculation For Pediatric Patients
    The following calculation should be used to determine the appropriate daily dose of oral solution for pediatric patients:

                                                  Daily dose (mg/kg/day) x patient weight (kg)
    Total daily dose (mL/day) = -------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               100 mg/mL

    2.3 Dosing for Myoclonic Seizures in Patients 12 Years of Age and Older With Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Initiate treatment with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase the dosage by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been studied.

    2.4 Dosing for Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Adults 16 Years of Age and Older
    Initiate treatment with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase dosage by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been adequately studied.
    Pediatric Patients 6 to <16 Years of Age
    Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). The effectiveness of doses lower than 60 mg/kg/day has not been adequately studied. Patients with body weight ≤20 kg should be dosed with oral solution. Patients with body weight above 20 kg can be dosed with either tablets or oral solution [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].Only whole tablets should be administered.

    2.5 Dosage Adjustments in Adult Patients with Renal Impairment

    Levetiracetam tablets dosing must be individualized according to the patient's renal function status. Recommended dosage adjustments for adults are shown in Table 1. In order to calculate the dose recommended for patients with renal impairment, creatinine clearance adjusted for body surface area must be calculated. To do this an estimate of the patient's creatinine clearance (CLcr) in mL/min must first be calculated using the following formula:

                 [140-age (years)] x weight (kg)
    CLcr=  --------------------------------------------- (× 0.85 for female patients)
                 72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)

    Then CLcr is adjusted for body surface area (BSA) as follows:

                                                CLcr (mL/min)
    CLcr (mL/min/1.73m2) = --------------------------- x 1.73
                                               BSA subject (m2)      


    Table 1: Dosing Adjustment Regimen for Adult Patients with Renal Impairment

     Group
     
     Creatinine
     Clearance
     (mL/min/1.73m2)
     
     Dosage (mg)
     
     Frequency
     
     Normal
     
     > 80
     
     500 to 1500
     
     Every 12 hours
     
     Mild
     
     50 to 80
     
     500 to 1000
     
     Every 12 hours
     
     Moderate
     
     30 to 50
     
     250 to 750
     
     Every 12 hours
     
     Severe
     
     < 30
     
     250 to 500
     
     Every 12 hours
     
     ESRD patients using
     dialysis
     
     ----
     
     500 to 10001
     
     Every 24 hours1
     

    1Following dialysis, a 250 to 500 mg supplemental dose is recommended. 

     

    2.6 Discontinuation of Levetiracetam Tablets

    Avoid abrupt withdrawal from levetiracetam tablets in order to reduce the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP are available containing 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg or 1000 mg of levetiracetam, USP
    250 mg: blue oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT250”on one side and score on other side.
    500 mg: yellow oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT500”on one side and score on other side
    750 mg: peach-Orange, oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT750”on one side and score on other side
    1000 mg: white, oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT1g”on one side and score on other side

  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Levetiracetam tablets are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to levetiracetam. Reactions have included anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Behavioral Abnormalities and Psychotic Symptoms

    Levetiracetam tablets may cause behavioral abnormalities and psychotic symptoms. Patients treated with levetiracetam tablets should be monitored for psychiatric signs and symptoms.
    Behavioral abnormalities
    In clinical studies, 13% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and 38% of pediatric levetiracetam tablets-treated patients (4 to 16 years of age) compared to 6% and 19% of adult and pediatric placebo-treated patients, experienced non-psychotic behavioral symptoms (reported as aggression, agitation, anger, anxiety, apathy, depersonalization, depression, emotional lability, hostility, hyperkinesias, irritability, nervousness, neurosis, and personality disorder).
    A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients (4 to 16 years of age).
    The results from an exploratory analysis indicated a worsening in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients on aggressive behavior (one of eight behavior dimensions) as measured in a standardized and systematic way using a validated instrument, the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6 to 18).
    In clinical studies in pediatric patients 1 month to < 4 years of age, irritability was reported in 12% of the levetiracetam tablets-treated patients compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients.
    In clinical studies, 1.7% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients discontinued treatment due to behavioral adverse reactions, compared to 0.2% of placebo-treated patients. The treatment dose was reduced in 0.8% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and in 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. Overall, 11% of levetiracetam tablets-treated pediatric patients experienced behavioral symptoms associated with discontinuation or dose reduction, compared to 6% of placebo-treated patients.
    Psychotic symptoms
    In clinical studies, 1% of levetiracetam tablets-treated adult patients, 2% of levetiracetam tablets-treated pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age, and 17% of levetiracetam tablets-treated pediatric patients 1 month to < 4 years of age experienced psychotic symptoms, compared to 0.2%, 2%, and 5% in the corresponding age groups treated with placebo. In a controlled study that assessed the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam tablets in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age, 1.6% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients experienced paranoia, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients. In the same study, 3.1% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients experienced confusional state, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
    In clinical studies, two (0.3%) levetiracetam tablets-treated adult patients were hospitalized and their treatment was discontinued due to psychosis. Both events, reported as psychosis, developed within the first week of treatment and resolved within 1 to 2 weeks following treatment discontinuation. There was no difference between drug and placebo-treated patients in the incidence of the pediatric patients who discontinued treatment due to psychotic and non-psychotic adverse reactions.

    5.2 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including levetiracetam tablets, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
    Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients  was  0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase  of  approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
    The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.

    The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed.
    The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.

    Table 2: Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled Analysis

     Indication
     
     Placebo Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients
     
     Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients
     
     Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients
     
     Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients
     
     Epilepsy
     
     1.0
     
     3.4
     
     3.5
     
     2.4
     
     Psychiatric
     
     5.7
     
     8.5
     
     1.5
     
     2.9
     
     Other
     
     1.0
     
     1.8
     
     1.9
     
     0.9
     
     Total
     
     2.4
     
     4.3
     
     1.8
     
     1.9
     

    The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
    Anyone considering prescribing levetiracetam tablets or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.

     

    5.3 Somnolence and Fatigue

    Levetiracetam tablets may cause somnolence and fatigue. Patients should be monitored for these signs and symptoms and advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on levetiracetam tablets to gauge whether it adversely affects their ability to drive or operate machinery.
    Somnolence
    In controlled trials of adult patients with epilepsy experiencing partial-onset seizures, 15% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients reported somnolence, compared to 8% of placebo-treated patients. There was no clear dose response up to 3000 mg/day. In a study where there was no titration, about 45% of patients receiving 4000 mg/day reported somnolence. The somnolence was considered serious in 0.3% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients, compared to 0% in the placebo group. About 3% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients discontinued treatment due to somnolence, compared to 0.7% of placebo- treated patients. In 1.4% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and 0.9% of placebo-treated patients, the dose was reduced, while 0.3% of the levetiracetam tablets-treated patients were hospitalized due to somnolence.
    Asthenia
    In controlled clinical studies of adult patients with epilepsy experiencing partial-onset seizures, 15% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients reported asthenia, compared to 9% of placebo-treated patients. Treatment was discontinued due to asthenia in 0.8% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients as compared to 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. In 0.5% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and in 0.2% of placebo-treated patients, the dose was reduced due to asthenia.
    Somnolence and asthenia occurred most frequently within the first 4 weeks of treatment. In general, the incidences of somnolence and fatigue in the pediatric partial-onset seizure studies, and in pediatric and adult myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizure studies were comparable to those of the adult partial-onset seizure studies.

    5.4 Anaphylaxis and Angioedema

    Levetiracetam tablets can cause anaphylaxis or angioedema after the first dose or at any time during treatment. Signs and symptoms in cases reported in the postmarketing setting have included hypotension, hives, rash, respiratory distress, and swelling of the  face, lip, mouth, eye, tongue, throat, and  feet. In some reported cases, reactions were life-threatening and required emergency treatment. If a patient develops signs or symptoms of anaphylaxis or angioedema, levetiracetam tablets should be discontinued and the patient should seek immediate medical attention. Levetiracetam tablets should be discontinued permanently if a clear alternative etiology for the reaction cannot be established [see Contraindications (4)].


    5.5 Serious Dermatological Reactions

    Serious dermatological reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), have been reported in both pediatric and adult patients treated with levetiracetam tablets. The median time of onset is reported to be 14 to 17 days, but cases have been reported at least four months after initiation of treatment. Recurrence of the serious skin reactions following rechallenge with levetiracetam tablets has also been reported. Levetiracetam tablets should be discontinued at the first sign of a rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. If signs or symptoms suggest SJS/TEN, use of this drug should not be resumed and alternative therapy should be considered.

    5.6 Coordination Difficulties

    Levetiracetam tablets may cause coordination difficulties.
    In controlled clinical studies in adult patients with partial-onset seizure studies, 3.4% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients experienced coordination difficulties, (reported as either ataxia, abnormal gait, or incoordination) compared to 1.6% of placebo-treated patients. A total of 0.4% of patients in controlled clinical studies discontinued levetiracetam tablets treatment due to ataxia, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients. In 0.7% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and in 0.2% of placebo-treated patients, the dose was reduced due to coordination difficulties, while one of the levetiracetam tablets-treated patients was hospitalized due to worsening of pre-existing ataxia. These events occurred most frequently within the first 4 weeks of treatment.
    Patients should be monitored for these signs and symptoms and advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on levetiracetam tablets to gauge whether it could adversely affect their ability to drive or operate machinery.

    5.7 Withdrawal Seizures

    As with most antiepileptic drugs, levetiracetam tablets should generally be withdrawn gradually because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus. If withdrawal is needed because of a serious adverse reaction, rapid discontinuation can be considered.

    5.8 Hematologic Abnormalities

    Levetiracetam tablets can cause hematologic abnormalities. Hematologic abnormalities  occurred in clinical trials and included decreases in white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, and red blood cell (RBC) counts; decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit; and increases in eosinophil counts. Cases of agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported in the postmarketing setting. A complete blood count is recommended in patients experiencing significant weakness, pyrexia, recurrent infections, or coagulation disorders.
    Partial-Onset Seizures
    Adults
    Minor, but statistically significant, decreases compared to placebo in total mean RBC count (0.03 x 106/mm3), mean hemoglobin (0.09 g/dL), and mean hematocrit (0.38%), were seen in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients in controlled trials.
    A total of 3.2% of levetiracetam tablets-treated and 1.8% of placebo-treated patients had at least one possibly significant (≤2.8 x 109/L) decreased WBC, and 2.4% of levetiracetam tablets-treated and 1.4% of placebo- treated patients had at least one possibly significant (≤1.0 x 109/L) decreased neutrophil count. Of the levetiracetam tablets-treated patients with a low neutrophil count, all but one rose towards or to baseline with continued treatment. No patient was discontinued secondary to low neutrophil counts.
    Pediatric Patients 4 Years to < 16 Years
    Statistically significant decreases in WBC and neutrophil counts were seen in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients as compared to placebo. The mean decreases from baseline in the levetiracetam tablets-treated group were -0.4 × 109/L and -0.3 × 109/L, respectively, whereas there were small increases in the placebo group. Mean relative lymphocyte counts increased by 1.7% in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients, compared to a decrease of 4% in placebo patients (statistically significant).
    In the controlled trial, more levetiracetam tablets-treated patients had a possibly clinically significant abnormally low WBC value (3% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients versus 0% of placebo-treated patients), however, there was no apparent difference between treatment groups with respect to neutrophil count (5% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients versus 4.2% of placebo-treated patients). No patient was discontinued secondary to low WBC or neutrophil counts.
    In the controlled cognitive and neuropsychological safety study, 5 patients (8.6%) in the levetiracetam tablets- treated group and two patients (6.1%) in the placebo-treated group had high eosinophil count values that were possibly clinically significant (≥10% or ≥0.7X109/L).

    5.9 Increase in Blood Pressure

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients 1 month to <4 years of age, a significantly higher risk of increased diastolic blood pressure was observed in the levetiracetam tablets-treated patients (17%), compared to the placebo-treated patients (2%). There was no overall difference in mean diastolic blood pressure between the treatment groups. This disparity between the levetiracetam tablets and placebo treatment groups was not observed in the studies of older children or in adults.
    Monitor patients 1 month to < 4 years of age for increases in diastolic blood pressure.


    5.10 Seizure Control During Pregnancy

    Physiological changes may gradually decrease plasma levels of levetiracetam throughout pregnancy. This decrease is more pronounced during the third trimester. It is recommended that patients be monitored carefully during pregnancy. Close monitoring should continue through the postpartum period especially if the dose was changed during pregnancy.

  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following adverse reactions are discussed in more details in other sections of labeling:
    Behavior Abnormalities and Psychotic Symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
    Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
    Somnolence and Fatigue [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
    Anaphylaxis and Angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
    Serious Dermatological Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
    Coordination Difficulties [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
    Hematologic Abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
    Increase in Blood Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

    6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
    Partial-Onset Seizures
    Adults
    In controlled clinical studies in adults with partial-onset seizures [see Clinical Studies (14.1)], the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were somnolence, asthenia, infection, and dizziness. Of the most common adverse reactions in adults experiencing partial-onset seizures, asthenia, somnolence, and dizziness occurred predominantly during the first 4 weeks of treatment with levetiracetam tablets.
    Table 3 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of adult epilepsy patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in placebo-controlled studies and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In these studies, either levetiracetam tablets or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy.

    Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Pooled Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Studies in Adults Experiencing Partial-Onset Seizures

      
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     (N=769) %
     
     Placebo
     (N=439) %
     
     Asthenia
     
     15
     
     9
     
     Somnolence
     
     15
     
     8
     
     Headache
     
     14
     
     13
     
     Infection
     
     13
     
     8
     
     Dizziness
     
     9
     
     4
     
     Pain
     
     7
     
     6
     
     Pharyngitis
     
     6
     
     4
     
     Depression
     
     4
     
     2
     
     Nervousness
     
     4
     
     2
     
     Rhinitis
     
     4
     
     3
     
     Anorexia
     
     3
     
     2
     
     Ataxia
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Vertigo
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Amnesia
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Anxiety
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Cough Increased
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Diplopia
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Emotional Lability
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Hostility
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Paresthesia
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Sinusitis
     
     2
     
     1
     

    In controlled adult clinical studies, 15% of patients receiving levetiracetam tablets and 12% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction as a result of an adverse reaction. Table 4 lists the most common (> 1%) adverse reactions that resulted in discontinuation or dose reduction and that occurred more frequently in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients.

    Table 4: Adverse Reactions that Resulted in Discontinuation or Dose Reduction in Placebo- Controlled Studies in Adult Patients Experiencing Partial-Onset Seizures

     Adverse
     Reaction
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     
     Placebo
     
     (N=769)
     
     (N=439)
     
     %
     
     %
     
     Somnolence
     
     4
     
     2
     
     Dizziness
     
     1
     
     0
     

    Pediatric Patients 4 Years to < 16 Years
    The adverse reaction data presented below was obtained from a pooled analysis of two controlled pediatric clinical studies in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age with partial-onset seizures. The most common adverse reactions in pediatric patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were  fatigue, aggression, nasal  congestion, decreased appetite, and irritability.
    Table 5 lists adverse reactions from the pooled pediatric controlled studies (4 to 16 years of age) that occurred in at least 2% of pediatric levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and were numerically more common than in pediatric patients treated with placebo. In these studies, either levetiracetam tablets or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy.
    Table 5: Adverse Reactions in Pooled Placebo- Controlled, Adjunctive Studies in Pediatric Patients Ages 4 to 16 Years Experiencing Partial-Onset Seizures

      
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets (N=165)
     %
     
     Placebo (N=131) %
     
     Headache
     
     19
     
     15
     
     Nasopharyngitis
     
     15
     
     12
     
     Vomiting
     
     15
     
     12
     
     Somnolence
     
     13
     
     9
     
     Fatigue
     
     11
     
     5
     
     Aggression
     
     10
     
     5
     
     Cough
     
     9
     
     5
     
     Nasal Congestion
     
     9
     
     2
     
     Upper Abdominal Pain
     
     9
     
     8
     
     Decreased Appetite
     
     8
     
     2
     
     Abnormal Behavior
     
     7
     
     4
     
     Dizziness
     
     7
     
     5
     
     Irritability
     
     7
     
     1
     
     Pharyngolaryngeal Pain
     
     7
     
     4
     
     Diarrhea
     
     6
     
     2
     
     Lethargy
     
     6
     
     5
     
     Insomnia
     
     5
     
     3
     
     Agitation
     
     4
     
     1
     
     Anorexia
     
     4
     
     3
     
     Head Injury
     
     4
     
     0
     
     Altered Mood
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Constipation
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Contusion
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Depression
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Fall
     
     3
     
     2
     
     Influenza
     
     3
     
     1
     
     Affect Lability
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Anxiety
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Arthralgia
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Confusional State
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Conjunctivitis
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Ear Pain
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Gastroenteritis
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Joint Sprain
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Mood Swings
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Neck Pain
     
     2
     
     1
     
     Rhinitis
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Sedation
     
     2
     
     1
     

    In the controlled pooled pediatric clinical studies in patients 4 to 16 years of age, 7% of patients receiving levetiracetam tablets and 9% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction.
    Pediatric Patients 1 Month to < 4 Years
    In the 7-day, controlled pediatric clinical study in children 1 month to  less than 4  years  of age  with partial-onset seizures, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were somnolence  and irritability. Because of the shorter exposure period, incidences of adverse reactions are expected to be lower than in other pediatric studies in older patients. Therefore, other controlled pediatric data, presented above, should also be considered to apply to this age group.

    Table 6 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of pediatric epilepsy patients (ages 1 month to < 4 years) treated with levetiracetam tablets in the placebo-controlled study and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, either levetiracetam tablets or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy.

    Table 6: Adverse Reactions in a Placebo- Controlled, Adjunctive Study in Pediatric Patients Ages 1 Month to < 4 Years Experiencing Partial-Onset Seizures

      
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     
     Placebo
     
     (N=60)
     
     (N=56)
     
     %
     
     %
     
     Somnolence
     
     13
     
     2
     
     Irritability
     
     12
     
     0
     

    In the 7-day controlled pediatric clinical study in patients 1 month to < 4 years of age, 3% of patients receiving levetiracetam tablets and 2% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction as a result of an adverse reaction. There was no adverse reaction that resulted in discontinuation for more than one patient.

    Myoclonic Seizures

    Although the pattern of adverse reactions in this study seems somewhat different from that seen in patients with partial-onset seizures, this is likely due to the much smaller number of patients in this study compared to partial seizure studies. The adverse reaction pattern for patients with JME is expected to be essentially the same as for patients with partial seizures.

    In the controlled clinical study in patients 12 years of age  and older with myoclonic  seizures [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] , the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were somnolence, neck pain, and pharyngitis.

    Table 7 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients experiencing myoclonic seizures treated with levetiracetam tablets and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, either levetiracetam tablets or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy.

    Table 7: Adverse Reactions in a Placebo- Controlled, Adjunctive Study in Patients 12 Years of Age and Older with Myoclonic Seizures

      
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     
     Placebo
     
     (N=60)
     
     (N=60) %
     
     %
     
      
     
     Somnolence
     
     12
     
     2
     
     Neck pain
     
     8
     
     2
     
     Pharyngitis
     
     7
     
     0
     
     Depression
     
     5
     
     2
     
     Influenza
     
     5
     
     2
     
     Vertigo
     
     5
     
     3
     

    In the placebo-controlled study, 8% of patients receiving levetiracetam tablets and 2% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions that led to discontinuation or dose reduction and that occurred more frequently in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients are presented in Table 8.

    Table 8: Adverse Reactions that Resulted in Discontinuation or Dose Reduction in a Placebo- Controlled Study in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

     Adverse Reaction
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     
     Placebo
     
      
     
     (N=60)
     %
     
     (N=60)
     %
     
     Anxiety
     
     3
     
     2
     
     Depressed mood
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Depression
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Diplopia
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Hypersomnia
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Insomnia
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Irritability
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Nervousness
     
     2
     
     0
     
     Somnolence
     
     2
     
     0
     

    Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures
    Although the pattern of adverse reactions in this study seems somewhat different from that seen in patients with partial-onset seizures, this is likely due to the much smaller number of patients in this study compared to partial seizure studies. The adverse reaction pattern for patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures is expected to be essentially the same as for patients with partial seizures.
    In the controlled clinical study that included patients 4 years of age and older with PGTC seizures [see Clinical Studies (14.3)] , the most common adverse reaction in patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, was nasopharyngitis.
    Table 9 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients experiencing PGTC seizures treated with levetiracetam tablets and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, either levetiracetam tablets or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy.

    Table 9: Adverse Reactions in a Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Study in Patients 4 Years of Age and Older with PGTC Seizures

      
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     
     Placebo
     
     (N=79)
     %
     
     (N=84)
     %
     
     Nasopharyngitis
     
     14
     
     5
     
     Fatigue
     
     10
     
     8
     
     Diarrhea
     
     8
     
     7
     
     Irritability
     
     6
     
     2
     
     Mood swings
     
     5
     
     1
     

    In the placebo-controlled study, 5% of patients receiving levetiracetam tablets and 8% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction during the treatment period as a result of an adverse reaction.
    This study was too small to adequately characterize the adverse reactions that could be expected to result in discontinuation of treatment in this population. It is expected that the adverse reactions that would lead to discontinuation in this population would be similar to those resulting in discontinuation in other epilepsy trials (see tables 4 and 8).
    In addition, the following adverse reactions were seen in other controlled adult studies of levetiracetam tablets: balance disorder, disturbance in attention, eczema, memory impairment, myalgia, and blurred vision.
    Comparison of Gender, Age and Race
    The overall adverse reaction profile of levetiracetam tablets was similar between females and males. There are insufficient data to support a statement regarding the distribution of adverse reactions by age and race.

    6.2 Postmarketing Experience

    The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of levetiracetam tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
    The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving marketed levetiracetam tablets worldwide. The listing is alphabetized: abnormal liver function test, acute kidney injury, anaphylaxis, angioedema, agranulocytosis, choreoathetosis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), dyskinesia, erythema multiforme, hepatic failure, hepatitis, hyponatremia, muscular weakness, pancreatitis, pancytopenia (with bone marrow suppression identified in some of these cases), panic attack, thrombocytopenia, weight loss, and worsening of seizures. Alopecia has been reported with levetiracetam tablets use; recovery was observed in majority of cases where levetiracetam tablets were discontinued.

  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Pregnancy Exposure Registry
    There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including levetiracetam tablets, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking levetiracetam tablets during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
    Risk Summary
    Prolonged experience with levetiracetam tablets in pregnant women has not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects or miscarriage, based on published literature, which includes data from pregnancy registries and reflects experience over two decades [see Human Data]. In animal studies, levetiracetam produced developmental toxicity (increased  embryofetal  and  offspring  mortality,  increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities, decreased embryofetal  and  offspring  growth,  neurobehavioral alterations in offspring) at doses similar to human therapeutic doses [see Animal Data].
    In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
    Clinical Considerations
    Levetiracetam blood levels may decrease during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect levetiracetam concentration. Decrease in levetiracetam plasma concentrations has been observed during pregnancy. This decrease is more pronounced during the third trimester. Dose adjustments may be necessary to maintain clinical response.
    Data
    Human Data
    While available studies cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, data from the published literature and pregnancy registries have not established an association with levetiracetam use during pregnancy and major birth defects or miscarriage.
    Animal Data
    When levetiracetam (0, 400, 1200, or 3600 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, reduced fetal weights and increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations were observed at the highest dose tested. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal developmental in rats (1200 mg/kg/day) is approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3000 mg on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.
    Oral administration of levetiracetam (0, 200, 600, or 1800 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased embryofetal mortality and incidence of fetal skeletal variations at the mid and high dose and decreased fetal weights and increased incidence of fetal malformations at the high dose, which was associated with maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development in rabbits (200 mg/kg/day) is approximately equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
    Oral administration of levetiracetam (0, 70, 350, or 1800 mg/kg/day) to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation led to an increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations, reduced fetal body weight, and decreased growth in offspring at the mid and high doses and increased pup mortality and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring at the highest dose tested. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on pre- and postnatal development in rats (70 mg/kg/day) is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
    Oral administration of levetiracetam to rats during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation produced no adverse developmental or maternal effects at doses of up to 1800 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis).


    8.2 Lactation

    Risk Summary
    Levetiracetam is excreted in human milk. There are no data on the effects of levetiracetam tablets on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production.
    The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for levetiracetam tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from levetiracetam tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 1 month to 16 years of age have been established [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The dosing recommendation in these pediatric patients varies according to age group and is weight-based [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
    The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of myoclonic seizures in adolescents 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
    The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
    Safety and effectiveness for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in pediatric patients below the age of 1 month; adjunctive therapy for the treatment of myoclonic seizures in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years; and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in pediatric patients below the age of 6 years have not been established.
    A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in 98 (levetiracetam tablets N=64, placebo N=34) pediatric patients, ages 4 to 16 years old, with partial seizures that were inadequately controlled. The target dose was 60 mg/kg/day. Neurocognitive effects were measured by the Leiter-R Attention and Memory (AM) Battery, which measures various aspects of a child's memory and attention. Although no substantive differences were observed between the placebo and drug treated groups in the median change from baseline in this battery, the study was not adequate to assess formal statistical non- inferiority of the drug and placebo. The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6 to 18), a standardized validated tool used to assess a child’s competencies and behavioral/emotional problems, was also assessed in this study. An analysis of the CBCL/6 to 18 indicated on average a worsening in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients in aggressive behavior, one of the eight syndrome scores [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
    Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
    Studies of levetiracetam in juvenile rats (dosed on postnatal days 4 through 52) and dogs (dosed from postnatal weeks 3 through 7) at doses of up to 1800 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 and 24 times, respectively, the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 60 mg/kg/day on a mg/m2 basis) did not demonstrate adverse effects on postnatal development.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    There were 347 subjects in clinical studies of levetiracetam tablets that were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. There were insufficient numbers of elderly subjects in controlled trials of epilepsy to adequately assess the effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets in these patients.
    Levetiracetam is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].


    8.6 Renal Impairment

    Clearance of levetiracetam is decreased in patients with renal impairment and is correlated with creatinine clearance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with impaired renal function and supplemental doses should be given to patients after dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    10.1 Signs, Symptoms and Laboratory Findings of Acute Overdosage in Humans

    The highest known dose of levetiracetam tablets received in the clinical development program was 6000 mg/day. Other than drowsiness, there were no adverse reactions in the few known cases of overdose in clinical trials. Cases of somnolence, agitation, aggression, depressed level of consciousness, respiratory depression and coma were observed with levetiracetam tablets overdoses in postmarketing use.

    10.2 Management of Overdose

    There is no specific antidote for overdose with levetiracetam tablets. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be attempted by emesis or gastric lavage; usual precautions should be observed to maintain airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the patient's clinical status. A  Certified Poison Control Center should be contacted for up to date information on the management of overdose with levetiracetam tablets.

    10.3 Hemodialysis

    Standard hemodialysis procedures result in significant clearance of levetiracetam (approximately 50% in 4 hours) and should be considered in cases of overdose. Although hemodialysis has not been performed in the few known cases of overdose, it may be indicated by the patient's clinical state or in patients with significant renal impairment.


  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Levetiracetam,USP is an antiepileptic drug available as 250 mg (blue), 500 mg (yellow), 750 mg (orange), and 1000 mg (white) tablets.
    The chemical name of levetiracetam, USP, a single enantiomer, is (-)-(S)-α-ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide, its molecular formula is C8H14N2O2 and its molecular weight is 170.21. Levetiracetam, USP is chemically unrelated to existing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). It has the following structural formula:

    leve-stru

    Levetiracetam, USP is a white to almost white powder. It is very soluble in water, soluble in acetonitrile, practically insoluble in hexane.
    Levetiracetam tablets, USP contain the labeled amount of levetiracetam, USP. Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, maize starch, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, talc, titanium dioxide and additional agents listed below:
    250 mg tablets: FD&C blue #2 indigo carmine aluminum lake
    500 mg tablets: iron oxide yellow
    750 mg tablets: iron oxide yellow, iron oxide red

    Meets USP Dissolution Test 3


  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    The precise mechanism(s) by which levetiracetam exerts its antiepileptic effect is unknown.
    A saturable and stereoselective neuronal binding site in rat brain tissue has been described for levetiracetam. Experimental data indicate that this binding site is the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice. These findings suggest that the interaction of levetiracetam with the SV2A protein may contribute to the antiepileptic mechanism of action of the drug.

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    Effects on QTc Interval
    The effect of levetiracetam tablets on QTc prolongation was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, positive-controlled (moxifloxacin 400 mg) and placebo-controlled crossover study of levetiracetam tablets (1000 mg or 5000 mg) in 52 healthy subjects. The upper bound of the 90% confidence interval for the largest placebo-adjusted, baseline-corrected QTc was below 10 milliseconds. Therefore, there was no evidence of significant QTc prolongation in this study.

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    The pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam are similar when used as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures.
    Absorption and Distribution
    Absorption of levetiracetam is rapid, with peak plasma concentrations occurring in about an hour following oral administration in fasted subjects. The oral bioavailability of levetiracetam tablets is 100% and the tablets and oral solution are bioequivalent in rate and extent of absorption. Food does not affect the extent of absorption of levetiracetam but it decreases C max by 20% and delays T max by 1.5 hours. The pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam are linear over the dose range of 500 to 5000 mg. Steady state is achieved after 2 days of multiple twice-daily dosing. Levetiracetam and its major metabolite are less than 10% bound to plasma proteins; clinically significant interactions with other drugs through competition for protein binding sites are therefore unlikely.
    Metabolism
    Levetiracetam is not extensively metabolized in humans. The major metabolic pathway is the enzymatic hydrolysis of the acetamide group, which produces the carboxylic acid metabolite, ucb L057 (24% of dose) and is not dependent on any liver cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. The major metabolite is inactive in animal seizure models. Two minor metabolites were identified as the product of hydroxylation of the 2-oxo-pyrrolidine ring (2% of dose) and opening of the 2-oxo-pyrrolidine ring in position 5 (1% of dose). There is no enantiomeric interconversion of levetiracetam or its major metabolite.
    Elimination
    Levetiracetam plasma half-life in adults is 7 ± 1 hour and is unaffected by either dose or repeated administration. Levetiracetam is eliminated from the systemic circulation by renal excretion as unchanged drug which represents 66% of administered dose. The total body clearance is 0.96 mL/min/kg and the renal clearance is 0.6 mL/min/kg. The mechanism of excretion is glomerular filtration with subsequent partial tubular reabsorption. The metabolite ucb L057 is excreted by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion with a renal clearance of 4 mL/min/kg.  Levetiracetam elimination is correlated to creatinine clearance. Levetiracetam clearance is reduced in patients with renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
    Specific Populations
    Elderly
    Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam were evaluated in 16 elderly subjects (age 61 to 88 years) with creatinine clearance ranging from 30 to 74 mL/min. Following oral administration of twice-daily dosing for 10 days, total body clearance decreased by 38% and the half-life was 2.5 hours longer in the elderly compared to healthy adults. This is most likely due to the decrease in renal function in these subjects.
    Pediatric Patients
    Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam were evaluated in 24 pediatric patients (age 6 to 12 years) after single dose (20 mg/kg). The body weight adjusted apparent clearance of levetiracetam was approximately 40% higher than in adults.
    A repeat dose pharmacokinetic study was conducted in pediatric patients (age 4 to 12 years) at doses of 20 mg/kg/day, 40 mg/kg/day, and 60 mg/kg/day. The evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profile of levetiracetam and its metabolite (ucb L057) in 14 pediatric patients demonstrated rapid absorption of levetiracetam at all doses with a T max of about 1 hour and a t 1/2 of 5 hours across the three dosing levels. The pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in children was linear between 20 to 60 mg/kg/day. The potential interaction of levetiracetam with other AEDs was also evaluated in these patients.
    Levetiracetam had no significant effect on the plasma concentrations of carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate or lamotrigine. However, there was about a 22% increase of apparent clearance of levetiracetam when it was co-administered with an enzyme-inducing AED (e.g. carbamazepine).
    Following single dose administration (20 mg/kg) of a 10% oral solution to children with epilepsy (1 month to < 4 years), levetiracetam was rapidly absorbed and peak plasma concentrations were observed approximately 1 hour after dosing. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that half-life was shorter (5.3 h) than for adults (7.2 h) and apparent clearance was faster (1.5 mL/min/kg) than for adults (0.96 mL/min/kg).
    Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that body weight was significantly correlated to the clearance of levetiracetam in pediatric patients; clearance increased with an increase in body weight.
    Pregnancy
    Levetiracetam levels may decrease during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
    Gender
    Levetiracetam C max and AUC were 20% higher in women (N=11) compared to men (N=12). However, clearances adjusted for body weight were comparable.
    Race
    Formal pharmacokinetic studies of the effects of race have not been conducted. Cross-study comparisons involving Caucasians (N=12) and Asians (N=12), however, show that pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam were comparable between the two races. Because levetiracetam is primarily renally excreted and there are no important racial differences in creatinine clearance, pharmacokinetic differences due to race are not expected.
    Renal Impairment
    The disposition of levetiracetam was studied in adult subjects with varying degrees of renal function. Total body clearance of levetiracetam is reduced in patients with impaired renal function by 40% in the mild group (CLcr = 50 to 80 mL/min), 50% in the moderate group (CLcr = 30 to 50 mL/min) and 60% in the severe renal impairment group (CLcr <30 mL/min). Clearance of levetiracetam is correlated with creatinine clearance.
    In anuric (end stage renal disease) patients, the total body clearance decreased 70% compared to normal subjects (CLcr >80 mL/min). Approximately 50% of the pool of levetiracetam in the body is removed during a standard 4-hour hemodialysis procedure [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
    Hepatic Impairment
    In subjects with mild (Child-Pugh A) to moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment, the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam were unchanged. In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child- Pugh C), total body clearance was 50% that of normal subjects, but decreased renal clearance accounted for most of the decrease. No dose adjustment is needed for patients with hepatic impairment.
    Drug Interactions
    In vitro data on metabolic interactions indicate that levetiracetam is unlikely to produce, or be subject to, pharmacokinetic interactions. Levetiracetam and its major metabolite, at concentrations well above C max levels achieved within the therapeutic dose range, are neither inhibitors of, nor high affinity substrates for, human liver cytochrome P450 isoforms, epoxide hydrolase or UDP-glucuronidation enzymes. In addition, levetiracetam does not affect the in vitro glucuronidation of valproic acid.
    Potential pharmacokinetic interactions of or with levetiracetam were assessed in clinical pharmacokinetic studies (phenytoin, valproate, warfarin, digoxin, oral contraceptive, probenecid) and through pharmacokinetic screening in the placebo-controlled clinical studies in epilepsy patients.
    Phenytoin
    Levetiracetam tablets (3000 mg daily) had no effect on the pharmacokinetic disposition of phenytoin in patients with refractory epilepsy. Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam were also not affected by phenytoin.
    Valproate
    Levetiracetam tablets (1500 mg twice daily) did not alter the pharmacokinetics of valproate in healthy volunteers. Valproate 500 mg twice daily did not modify the rate or extent of levetiracetam absorption or its plasma clearance or urinary excretion. There also was no effect on exposure to and the excretion of the primary metabolite, ucb L057.
    Other Antiepileptic Drugs
    Potential drug interactions between levetiracetam tablets and other AEDs (carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone and valproate) were also assessed by evaluating the serum concentrations of levetiracetam and these AEDs during placebo-controlled clinical studies.
    These data indicate that levetiracetam does not influence the plasma concentration of other AEDs and that these AEDs do not influence the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam.
    Effect of AEDs in Pediatric Patients
    There was about a 22% increase of apparent total body clearance of levetiracetam when it was co- administered with enzyme-inducing AEDs. Dose adjustment is not recommended. Levetiracetam had no effect on plasma concentrations of carbamazepine, valproate, topiramate, or lamotrigine.
    Oral Contraceptives
    Levetiracetam tablets (500 mg twice daily) did not influence the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel, or of the luteinizing hormone and progesterone levels, indicating that impairment of contraceptive efficacy is unlikely. Coadministration of this oral contraceptive did not influence the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam.
    Digoxin
    Levetiracetam tablets (1000 mg twice daily) did not influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (ECG) of digoxin given as a 0.25 mg dose every day. Coadministration of digoxin did not influence the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam.
    Warfarin
    Levetiracetam tablets (1000 mg twice daily) did not influence the pharmacokinetics of R and S warfarin. Prothrombin time was not affected by levetiracetam. Coadministration of warfarin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam.
    Probenecid
    Probenecid, a renal tubular secretion blocking agent, administered at a dose of 500 mg four times a day, did not change the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam 1000 mg twice daily. Cssmax of the metabolite, ucb L057, was approximately doubled in the presence of probenecid while the fraction of drug excreted unchanged in the urine remained the same. Renal clearance of ucb L057 in the presence of probenecid decreased 60%, probably related to competitive inhibition of tubular secretion of ucb L057. The effect of levetiracetam tablets on probenecid was not studied.

  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    Carcinogenesis
    Rats were dosed with levetiracetam in the diet for 104 weeks at doses of 50, 300, and 1800 mg/kg/day. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the highest dose was approximately 6 times that in humans at the maximum recommended daily human dose (MRHD) of 3000 mg. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity. In mice, oral administration of levetiracetam for 80 weeks (doses up to 960 mg/kg/day) or 2 years (doses up to 4000 mg/kg/day, lowered to 3000 mg/kg/day after 45 weeks due to intolerability) was not associated with an increase in tumors. The highest dose tested in mice for 2 years (3000 mg/kg/day) is approximately 5 times the MRHD on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.
    Mutagenesis
    Levetiracetam was negative in in vitro (Ames, chromosomal aberration in mammalian cells) and in vivo (mouse micronucleus) assays. The major human metabolite of levetiracetam (ucb L057) was negative in in vitro (Ames, mouse lymphoma) assays.
    Impairment of Fertility
    No adverse effects on male or female fertility or reproductive performance were observed in rats at oral doses up to 1800 mg/kg/day, which were associated with plasma exposures (AUC) up to approximately 6 times that in humans at the MRHD.

  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Partial-Onset Seizures

    Effectiveness in Partial-Onset Seizures in Adults
    The effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults was established in three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in patients who had refractory partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. The tablet formulation was used in all these studies. In these studies, 904 patients were randomized to placebo, 1000 mg, 2000 mg, or 3000 mg/day. Patients enrolled in Study 1 or Study 2 had refractory partial-onset seizures for at least two years and had taken two or more classical AEDs. Patients enrolled in Study 3 had refractory partial-onset seizures for at least 1 year and had taken one classical AED. At the time of the study, patients were taking a stable dose regimen of at least one and could take a maximum of two AEDs. During the baseline period, patients had to have experienced at least two partial-onset seizures during each 4-week period.
    Study 1
    Study 1 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted at 41 sites in the United States comparing levetiracetam tablets 1000 mg/day (N=97), levetiracetam tablets 3000 mg/day (N=101), and placebo (N=95) given in equally divided doses twice daily. After a prospective baseline period of 12 weeks, patients were randomized to one of the three treatment groups described above. The 18-week treatment period consisted of a 6-week titration period, followed by a 12-week fixed dose evaluation period, during which concomitant AED regimens were held constant.  The  primary  measure  of  effectiveness was a between group comparison of  the  percent reduction in weekly partial  seizure  frequency relative to placebo over the entire  randomized  treatment  period (titration +  evaluation period). Secondary outcome variables included the responder rate (incidence of patients with ≥50% reduction from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency). The results of the analysis of Study 1 are displayed in Table 10.

    Table 10: Reduction in Mean Over Placebo in Weekly Frequency of Partial- Onset Seizures in Study 1

      
     
     Placebo
     (N= 95)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     1000 mg/day (N=97)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     3000 mg/day (N=101)
     
     Percent reduction in partial seizure frequency over placebo
     
     -
     
     26.1%*
     
     30.1%*
     

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the three treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 1.

    Figure 1: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 1

    leve-fig-1

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    Study 2
    Study 2 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted at 62 centers in Europe comparing levetiracetam tablets 1000 mg/day (N=106), levetiracetam tablets 2000 mg/day (N=105), and placebo (N=111) given in equally divided doses twice daily.
    The first period of the study (Period A) was designed to be analyzed as a parallel-group study. After a prospective baseline period of up to 12 weeks, patients were randomized to one of the three treatment groups described above. The 16-week treatment period consisted of the 4-week titration period followed by a 12-week fixed dose evaluation period, during which concomitant AED regimens were held constant. The primary measure of effectiveness was a between group comparison of the percent reduction in weekly partial seizure frequency relative to placebo over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period). Secondary outcome variables included the responder rate (incidence of patients with ≥50% reduction from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency). The results of the analysis of Period A are displayed in Table 11.

    Table 11: Reduction in Mean Over Placebo in Weekly Frequency of Partial-Onset Seizures in Study 2: Period A

      
     
     Placebo (N=111)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets 1000 mg/day (N=106)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets 2000 mg/day (N=105)
     
     Percent reduction in partial seizure frequency over placebo
     
     -
     
      
      
     17.1%*
     
      
      
     21.4%*
     

    *statistically significant versus placebo

     The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the three treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 2.
    Figure 2: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 2: Period A

    leve-fig-2

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    The comparison of levetiracetam tablets 2000 mg/day to levetiracetam tablets 1000 mg/day for responder rate was statistically significant (P=0.02). Analysis of the trial as a cross-over yielded similar results.
    Study 3
    Study 3 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted at 47 centers in Europe comparing levetiracetam tablets 3000 mg/day (N=180) and placebo (N=104) in patients with refractory partial- onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization, receiving only one concomitant AED. Study drug was given in two divided doses. After a prospective baseline period of 12 weeks, patients were randomized to one of two treatment groups described above. The 16-week treatment period consisted of a 4-week titration period, followed by a 12-week fixed dose evaluation period, during which concomitant AED doses were held constant. The primary measure of effectiveness was a between group comparison of the percent reduction in weekly seizure frequency relative to placebo over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period).  Secondary outcome variables included the responder rate (incidence of patients with ≥50% reduction from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency). Table 12 displays the results of the analysis of Study 3.

    Table 12: Reduction in Mean Over Placebo in Weekly Frequency of Partial-Onset Seizures in Study 3

      
     
     Placebo (N=104)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     3000 mg/day (N=180)
     
     Percent reduction in partial seizure frequency over placebo
     
     -
     
     23.0%*
     

    *statistically significant versus placebo

     The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the two treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 3.
    Figure 3: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 3

    leve-fig-3

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    Effectiveness in Partial-Onset Seizures in Pediatric Patients 4 to 16 Years of Age
    The effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in pediatric patients was established in one multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study  (Study  4), conducted at 60 sites in North America, in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age with partial seizures uncontrolled  by standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Eligible patients on a stable dose of 1 to 2 AEDs, who still experienced at least 4 partial-onset seizures during the 4 weeks prior to screening, as well as at least 4 partial-onset seizures in each of the two 4-week baseline periods, were randomized to receive either levetiracetam tablets or placebo. The enrolled population included 198 patients (levetiracetam tablets N=101 placebo N=97) with refractory partial-onset seizures, whether or not secondarily generalized. The study consisted of an 8-week baseline period and 4-week titration period followed by a 10-week evaluation period. Dosing was initiated at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day in two divided doses. During the treatment period, levetiracetam tablets doses were adjusted in 20 mg/kg/day increments, at 2-week intervals to the target dose of 60 mg/kg/day. The primary measure of effectiveness was a between group comparison of the percent reduction in weekly partial seizure frequency relative to placebo over the entire 14-week randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period). Secondary outcome variables included the responder rate (incidence of patients with ≥ 50% reduction from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency per week). Table 13 displays the results of this study.

    Table 13: Reduction in Mean Over Placebo in Weekly Frequency of Partial-Onset Seizures in Study 4

      
     
     Placebo (N=97)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets
     ( N=101)
     
     Percent reduction in partial seizure frequency over placebo
     
     -
     
     26.8%*
     

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥ 50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the two treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 4.
    Figure 4: Responder Rate (≥ 50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 4

    leve-fig-4

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    Effectiveness in Partial-Onset Seizures in Pediatric Patients 1 Month to <4 Years of Age
    The effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in pediatric patients was established in one multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study  (Study  5),  conducted at 62 sites in North America, South America, and Europe in pediatric patients  1 month  to  less  than 4 years of age with partial seizures, uncontrolled by standard epileptic  drugs (AEDs). Eligible patients on a stable dose of 1 to 2 AEDs, who experienced at least 2 partial-onset seizures during the 48-hour baseline video EEG were randomized to receive either levetiracetam tablets or placebo. The enrolled population included 116 patients (levetiracetam tablets N=60, placebo N=56) with refractory partial-onset seizures, whether or not secondarily generalized. Randomization was stratified by age range as follows: 1 month to less than 6 months of age (N=4 treated with levetiracetam tablets), 6 months to less than 1 year of age (N=8 treated with levetiracetam tablets), 1 year to less than 2 years of age (N=20 treated with levetiracetam tablets), and 2 years to less than 4 years of age (N=28 treated with levetiracetam tablets). The study consisted of a 5-day evaluation period which included a 1-day titration period followed by a 4-day maintenance period. Levetiracetam tablets dosing was determined by age  and  weight as  follows: children 1 month to less than 6 months old were randomized to  a target dose  of  40  mg/kg/day,  and  children 6 months to less than 4  years old were randomized to  a target dose of 50  mg/kg/day. The primary measure  of effectiveness was the responder rate (percent of patients with ≥ 50% reduction from baseline  in average daily partial-onset seizure frequency) assessed by a blinded  central  reader  using  a 48-hour video EEG performed during the last two days of the 4-day maintenance period. A total of 109 patients were included in the efficacy analysis. A statistically significant difference between levetiracetam tablets and placebo was observed (see Figure 5). The treatment effect associated with levetiracetam tablets was consistent across age groups.
    Figure 5: Responder Rate for All Patients Ages 1 Month to < 4 Years (≥ 50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 5

    leve-fig-5

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    14.2 Myoclonic Seizures in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in patients 12 years of age  and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) experiencing  myoclonic  seizures  was  established  in one multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Study 6), conducted at 37 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients on a stable dose of 1 antiepileptic drug (AED) experiencing one or more myoclonic seizures per day for at least 8 days during the prospective 8-week baseline period were randomized to either levetiracetam tablets or placebo (levetiracetam tablets N=60, placebo  N=60). Patients were titrated over 4 weeks to a target dose of 3000 mg/day and treated at a stable dose of 3000 mg/day over 12 weeks (evaluation period). Study drug was given in 2 divided doses.
    The primary measure of effectiveness was the proportion of patients with at least 50% reduction in the number of days per week with one or more myoclonic seizures during the treatment period (titration + evaluation periods) as compared to baseline. Of the 120 patients enrolled, 113 had a diagnosis of confirmed or suspected JME. Table 14 displays the results for the 113 patients with JME in this study.
    Table 14: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Myoclonic Seizure Days per Week for Patients with JME in Study 6

      
      
     
     Placebo
     (N=59)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets (N=54)
     
     Percentage of responders
     
     23.7%
     
     60.4%*
     

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    14.3 Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    The effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy experiencing primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures was established in one multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Study 7), conducted at 50 sites in 8 countries. Eligible patients on a stable dose of 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) experiencing at least 3 PGTC seizures during the 8-week combined baseline period (at least one PGTC seizure during the 4 weeks prior to the prospective baseline period and at least one PGTC seizure during the 4-week prospective baseline period) were randomized to either levetiracetam tablets or placebo.
    The 8-week combined baseline period is referred to as "baseline" in the remainder of this section. Patients were titrated over 4 weeks to a target dose of 3000 mg/day for adults  or a pediatric  target dose of 60 mg/kg/day and treated at a stable dose of 3000  mg/day (or 60 mg/kg/day for children) over 20  weeks (evaluation period). Study drug was given in 2 equally divided doses per day. The primary measure of effectiveness was the percent reduction from baseline in weekly PGTC seizure frequency for levetiracetam tablets and placebo treatment groups over the treatment period (titration + evaluation periods). The population included 164 patients (levetiracetam tablets N=80, placebo N=84) with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (predominately juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, or epilepsy with Grand Mal seizures on awakening) experiencing primary generalized tonic- clonic seizures. Each of these syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy was well represented in this patient population.
    There was a statistically significant decrease from baseline in PGTC frequency in the levetiracetam tablets- treated patients compared to the placebo-treated patients.
    Table 15: Median Percent Reduction from Baseline in PGTC Seizure Frequency per Week in Study 7

      
     
     Placebo (N=84)
     
     Levetiracetam Tablets (N=78)
     
     Percent reduction in PGTC seizure frequency
     
     44.6%
     
     77.6%*
     

    *statistically significant versus placebo

    The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in PGTC seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the two treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 6.
    Figure 6: Responder Rate (≥ 50% Reduction from Baseline) in PGTC Seizure Frequency per Week in Study 7

    leve-fig-6

    *statistically significant versus placebo

  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    16.1 How Supplied

    Levetiracetam tablets 250 mg, USP are blue oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT250”on one side and score on other side. They supplied as:
    Bottles of 30 tablets (NDC: 67877-768-30)
    Bottles of 120 tablets (NDC: 67877-768-12)
    Bottles of 500 tablets (NDC: 67877-768-05)

    Carton of 10 (1×10) Unit-dose Tablets (NDC: 67877-768-33)

    Levetiracetam tablets 500 mg, USP are yellow oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT500”on one side and score on other side. They supplied as:
    Bottles of 30 tablets (NDC: 67877-769-30)
    Bottles of 120 tablets (NDC: 67877-769-12)
    Bottles of 500 tablets (NDC: 67877-769-05)

    Carton of 10 (1×10) Unit-dose Tablets (NDC: 67877-769-33)

    Levetiracetam tablets 750 mg, USP are peach-orange, oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT750”on one side and score on other side. They supplied as:
    Bottles of 30 tablets (NDC: 67877-770-30)
    Bottles of 120 tablets (NDC: 67877-770-12)
    Bottles of 500 tablets (NDC: 67877-770-05)

    Carton of 10 (1×10) Unit-dose Tablets (NDC: 67877-770-33)

    Levetiracetam tablets 1000 mg, USP are white, oval shaped scored, film coated Tablets debossed with “LT1g”on one side and score on other side. They supplied as:
    Bottles of 30 tablets (NDC: 67877-771-30)
    Bottles of 60 tablets (NDC: 67877-771-60)
    Bottles of 500 tablets (NDC: 67877-771-05)

    Carton of 10 (1×10) Unit-dose Tablets (NDC: 67877-771-33)

    16.2 Storage

    Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]


  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
    Psychiatric Reactions and Changes in Behavior
    Advise patients that levetiracetam tablets may cause changes in behavior (e.g. aggression, agitation, anger, anxiety, apathy, depression, hostility, and irritability) and psychotic symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
    Suicidal Behavior and Ideation
    Counsel patients, their caregivers, and/or families  that antiepileptic  drugs  (AEDs), including levetiracetam tablets, may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and advise patients  to  be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms  of  depression; unusual  changes  in mood  or behavior; or suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Advise patients, their caregivers, and/or families to immediately report behaviors of concern to a healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
    Effects on Driving or Operating Machinery
    Inform patients that levetiracetam tablets may cause dizziness and somnolence. Inform patients not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on levetiracetam tablets to gauge whether it adversely affects their ability to drive or operate machinery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
    Anaphylaxis and Angioedema
    Advise patients to discontinue levetiracetam tablets and seek medical care if they develop signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis or angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
    Dermatological Adverse Reactions
    Advise patients that serious dermatological adverse reactions have occurred in patients treated with levetiracetam tablets and instruct them to call their physician immediately if a rash develops [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
    Withdrawal of levetiracetam tablets
    Advise patients and caregivers not to discontinue use of levetiracetam tablets without consulting with their healthcare provider. Levetiracetam tablets should normally be gradually withdrawn to reduce the potential of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
    Pregnancy
    Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during levetiracetam tablets therapy. Encourage patients to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry if they become pregnant [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Manufactured by:
    Alkem Laboratories Ltd.,
    INDIA.
    Distributed by:
    Ascend Laboratories, LLC
    Parsippany, NJ 07054

     

    Revised: October, 2021

    PT3606

  • MEDICATION GUIDE

                                          

     Levetiracetam Tablets, USP (LEE-ve-tye-RA-se-tam)
     
     Read this Medication Guide before you start taking levetiracetam tablets and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment.
     
     What is the most important information I should know about levetiracetam tablets?
     Like other antiepileptic drugs, levetiracetam tablets may cause suicidal thoughts or actions in a very small number of people, about 1 in 500 people taking it.
     Call a healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
     
    • thoughts about suicide or dying 
    • attempts to commit suicide 
    • new or worse depression  
    • new or worse anxiety  
    • feeling agitated or restless  
    • panic attacks 
    • trouble sleeping (insomnia)  
    • new or worse irritability 
    • acting aggressive, being angry, or violent  
    • acting on dangerous impulses 
    • an extreme increase in activity and talking (mania)  
    • other unusual changes in behavior or mood
     Do not stop levetiracetam tablets without first talking to a healthcare provider.
     
     
    • Stopping levetiracetam tablets suddenly can cause serious problems. Stopping a seizure medicine suddenly can cause seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus). 
    • Suicidal thoughts or actions can be caused by things other than medicines. If you have suicidal thoughts or actions, your healthcare provider may check for other causes.
     How can I watch for early symptoms of suicidal thoughts and actions?
    • Pay attention to any changes, especially sudden changes, in mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings.  
    • Keep all follow-up visits with your healthcare provider as scheduled.
     Call your healthcare provider between visits as needed, especially if you are worried about symptoms.
     
     What are levetiracetam tablets?
     Levetiracetam tablets are a prescription medicine taken by mouth that is used to treat partial-onset seizures in people 1 month of age and older.
     Levetiracetam tablets are a prescription medicine taken by mouth that is used with other medicines to treat:
     
    • myoclonic seizures in people 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. 
    • primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in people 6 years of age and older with certain types of generalized epilepsy. 
      It is not known if levetiracetam tablets are safe or effective in children under:
       
    • 1 month of age to treat partial-onsetseizures 
    • 12 years of age to treat myoclonic seizures 
    • 6 years of age to treat primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures
     Before taking your medicine, make sure you have received the correct medicine. Compare the name above with the name on your bottle and the appearance of your medicine with the description of levetiracetam tablets provided below. Tell your pharmacist immediately if you think you have been given the wrong medicine.
     
     Who should not take levetiracetam tablets?
     Do not take levetiracetam tablets if you are allergic to levetiracetam.
     
     What should I tell my healthcare provider before starting levetiracetam tablets?
     Before taking levetiracetam tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
     
    • have or have had depression, mood problems or suicidal thoughts or behavior.  
    • have kidney problems. 
    • are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. It is not known if levetiracetam tablets will harm your unborn baby. You and your healthcare provider will have to decide if you should take levetiracetam tablets while you are pregnant. If you become pregnant while taking levetiracetam tablets, talk to your healthcare provider about registering with the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. You can enroll in this registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or go to http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the safety of levetiracetam tablets and other antiepileptic medicine during pregnancy. 
    • are breast feeding or plan to breastfeed. Levetiracetam can pass into your breast milk. It is not known if the levetiracetam that pass into your breast milk can harm your baby. Talk to your doctor about the best way to feed your baby while you receive levetiracetam tablets.
      
     Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the- counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Do not start a new medicine without first talking with your healthcare provider.
     Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist each time you get a new medicine.
     
     How should I take levetiracetam tablets?
     
    • Take levetiracetam tablets exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to take it. 
    • Your healthcare provider will tell you how much levetiracetam tablets to take and when to take it. Levetiracetam tablets are usually taken 2 times each day. 
    • Your healthcare provider may change your dose. Do not change your dose without talking to your healthcare provider. 
    • Take levetiracetam tablets with or without food. 
    • Swallow the tablets whole. Do not chew or crush tablets. Ask your healthcare provider for levetiracetam oral solution if you cannot swallow tablets. 
    • If you take too much levetiracetam tablets, call your local Poison Control Center or go to the nearest emergency room right away.
     
     What should I avoid while taking levetiracetam tablets?
     Do not drive, operate machinery or do other dangerous activities until you know how levetiracetam tablets affect you. Levetiracetam tablets may make you dizzy or sleepy.
     
     What are the possible side effects of levetiracetam tablets?
     Levetiracetam tablets can cause serious side effects including:
     
    • See "What is the most important information I should know about levetiracetam tablets?"
    •  Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms: 
    • mood and behavior changes such as aggression, agitation, anger, anxiety, apathy, mood swings, depression, hostility, and irritability. A few people may get psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are really not there), delusions (false or strange thoughts or beliefs) and unusual behavior. 
    • extreme sleepiness, tiredness, and weakness 
    • allergic reactions such as swelling of the face, lips, eyes, tongue, and throat, trouble swallowing or breathing, and hives. 
    • a skin rash. Serious skin rashes can happen after you start taking levetiracetam tablets. There is no way to tell if a mild rash will become a serious reaction. 
    • problems with muscle coordination (problems walking and moving)
     The most common side effects seen in people who take levetiracetam tablets include:
    • sleepiness  
    • infection  
    • weakness  
    • dizziness
     The most common side effects seen in children who take levetiracetam tablets include, in addition to those listed above include:  

    • tiredness  
    • decreased appetite  
    • irritability 
    • acting aggressive  
    • nasal congestion
     Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all the possible side effects of levetiracetam tablets. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
     Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1- 800-FDA-1088. 
     How should I store levetiracetam tablets?
     
    • Store levetiracetam tablets at room temperature, between 59°F to 86°F (15°C to 30°C) away from heat and light. 
    • Keep levetiracetam tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.
     
     General information about the safe and effective use of levetiracetam tablet.Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use levetiracetam tablet for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give levetiracetam tablet to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about levetiracetam tablet that is written for health professionals.              
     What are the ingredients of levetiracetam tablets?Levetiracetam tablet, USP active ingredient: levetiracetam, USP              
    Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, maize starch, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, talc, titanium dioxide and additional agents listed below:
     250 mg tablets: FD&C blue #2 indigo carmine aluminum lake
     500 mg tablets: iron oxide yellow
     750 mg tablets: iron oxide yellow, iron oxide red
      
     Levetiracetam tablets do not contain lactose or gluten.
      
     Manufactured by:
     Alkem Laboratories Ltd.,
     INDIA.
     Distributed by:
     Ascend Laboratories, LLC
     Parsippany, NJ 07054
      
     For more information, call 1-877-ASC-RX01 (877-272-7901).
      
     This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
    Revised: October, 2021
     

    PT3607 

  • PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

    NDC: 67877-768-30

    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 250 mg

    Rx Only

    30 Tablets

     

    lave-cont-250mg

    NDC: 67877-769-12

    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 500 mg

    Rx Only

    120 Tablets

      lave-cont-500mg-120tab

    NDC: 67877-770-05

    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 750 mg

    Rx Only

    500 Tablets

    lave-cont-750mg-500tab

       

    NDC: 67877-771-60

    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 1000 mg

    Rx Only

    60 Tablets

    lave-cont-1000mg-60tab

        

    NDC: 67877-768-33
    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 250 mg
    Rx only
    10 (1 x 10) Unit-Dose Tablets

       leve-cart-250mg

    NDC: 67877-769-33
    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 500 mg
    Rx only
    10 (1 x 10) Unit-Dose Tablets

    leve-cart-500mg

       

    NDC: 67877-770-33
    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 750 mg
    Rx only
    10 (1 x 10) Unit-Dose Tablets

    leve-cart-750mg

      

    NDC: 67877-771-33
    Levetiracetam Tablets, USP 1000 mg
    Rx only
    10 (1 x 10) Unit-Dose Tablets

    leve-cart-1000mg


  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    LEVETIRACETAM 
    levetiracetam tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 67877-768
    Route of AdministrationORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    LEVETIRACETAM (UNII: 44YRR34555) (LEVETIRACETAM - UNII:44YRR34555) LEVETIRACETAM250 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    STARCH, CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)  
    SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO (UNII: 5856J3G2A2)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 532B59J990)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350 (UNII: G2M7P15E5P)  
    TALC (UNII: 7SEV7J4R1U)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    FD&C BLUE NO. 2 (UNII: L06K8R7DQK)  
    Product Characteristics
    ColorBLUEScore2 pieces
    ShapeOVALSize13mm
    FlavorImprint Code LT250
    Contains    
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 67877-768-3030 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    2NDC: 67877-768-12120 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    3NDC: 67877-768-05500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    4NDC: 67877-768-331 in 1 CARTON05/28/2022
    410 in 1 BLISTER PACK; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA21637505/28/2022
    LEVETIRACETAM 
    levetiracetam tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 67877-769
    Route of AdministrationORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    LEVETIRACETAM (UNII: 44YRR34555) (LEVETIRACETAM - UNII:44YRR34555) LEVETIRACETAM500 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    STARCH, CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)  
    SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO (UNII: 5856J3G2A2)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 532B59J990)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350 (UNII: G2M7P15E5P)  
    TALC (UNII: 7SEV7J4R1U)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW (UNII: EX438O2MRT)  
    Product Characteristics
    ColorYELLOWScore2 pieces
    ShapeOVALSize16mm
    FlavorImprint Code LT500
    Contains    
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 67877-769-3030 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    2NDC: 67877-769-12120 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    3NDC: 67877-769-05500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    4NDC: 67877-769-331 in 1 CARTON05/28/2022
    410 in 1 BLISTER PACK; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA21637505/28/2022
    LEVETIRACETAM 
    levetiracetam tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 67877-770
    Route of AdministrationORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    LEVETIRACETAM (UNII: 44YRR34555) (LEVETIRACETAM - UNII:44YRR34555) LEVETIRACETAM750 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    STARCH, CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)  
    SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO (UNII: 5856J3G2A2)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 532B59J990)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350 (UNII: G2M7P15E5P)  
    TALC (UNII: 7SEV7J4R1U)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW (UNII: EX438O2MRT)  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED (UNII: 1K09F3G675)  
    Product Characteristics
    ColorORANGE (peach-orange) Score2 pieces
    ShapeOVALSize18mm
    FlavorImprint Code LT750
    Contains    
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 67877-770-3030 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    2NDC: 67877-770-12120 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    3NDC: 67877-770-05500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    4NDC: 67877-770-331 in 1 CARTON05/28/2022
    410 in 1 BLISTER PACK; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA21637504/08/2022
    LEVETIRACETAM 
    levetiracetam tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 67877-771
    Route of AdministrationORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    LEVETIRACETAM (UNII: 44YRR34555) (LEVETIRACETAM - UNII:44YRR34555) LEVETIRACETAM1000 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    STARCH, CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)  
    SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO (UNII: 5856J3G2A2)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 532B59J990)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350 (UNII: G2M7P15E5P)  
    TALC (UNII: 7SEV7J4R1U)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    Product Characteristics
    ColorWHITEScore2 pieces
    ShapeOVALSize19mm
    FlavorImprint Code LT1g
    Contains    
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 67877-771-3030 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    2NDC: 67877-771-6060 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    3NDC: 67877-771-05500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product05/28/2022
    4NDC: 67877-771-331 in 1 CARTON05/28/2022
    410 in 1 BLISTER PACK; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA21637505/28/2022
    Labeler - Ascend Laboratories, LLC (141250469)
    Establishment
    NameAddressID/FEIBusiness Operations
    Alkem Laboratories Limited677605851ANALYSIS(67877-768, 67877-769, 67877-770, 67877-771) , MANUFACTURE(67877-768, 67877-769, 67877-770, 67877-771) , PACK(67877-768, 67877-769, 67877-770, 67877-771)

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