PEMETREXED- pemetrexed disodium injection, solution

Pemetrexed by

Drug Labeling and Warnings

Pemetrexed by is a Prescription medication manufactured, distributed, or labeled by Sandoz Inc.. Drug facts, warnings, and ingredients follow.

Drug Details [pdf]

  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Pemetrexed Injection is indicated:

    • in combination with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy, for the initial treatment of patients with metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.
    • in combination with cisplatin for the initial treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic, non-squamous, NSCLC.
    • as a single agent for the maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic, non-squamous NSCLC whose disease has not progressed after four cycles of platinum-based first-line chemotherapy.
    • as a single agent for the treatment of patients with recurrent, metastatic non-squamous, NSCLC after prior chemotherapy.

    Limitations of Use

    Pemetrexed Injection is not indicated for the treatment of patients with squamous cell, non-small cell lung cancer [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    1.2 Mesothelioma

    Pemetrexed Injection is indicated, in combination with cisplatin, for the initial treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma whose disease is unresectable or who are otherwise not candidates for curative surgery.

  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Recommended Dosage for Non-Squamous NSCLC

    • The recommended dose of Pemetrexed Injection when administered with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy for the initial treatment of metastatic non-squamous NSCLC in patients with a creatinine clearance (calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation) of 45 mL/min or greater is 500 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes administered after pembrolizumab and prior to carboplatin or cisplatin on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle for 4 cycles. Following completion of platinum-based therapy, treatment with Pemetrexed Injection with or without pembrolizumab is administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Please refer to the full prescribing information for pembrolizumab and for carboplatin or cisplatin.
    • The recommended dose of Pemetrexed Injection when administered with cisplatin for initial treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC in patients with a creatinine clearance (calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation) of 45 mL/min or greater is 500 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes administered prior to cisplatin on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle for up to six cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
    • The recommended dose of Pemetrexed Injection for maintenance treatment of non-squamous NSCLC in patients with a creatinine clearance (calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation) of 45 mL/min or greater is 500 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity after four cycles of platinum based first-line chemotherapy.
    • The recommended dose of Pemetrexed Injection for treatment of recurrent non-squamous NSCLC in patients with a creatinine clearance (calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation) of 45 mL/min or greater is 500 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

    2.2 Recommended Dosage for Mesothelioma

    • The recommended dose of Pemetrexed Injection when administered with cisplatin in patients with a creatinine clearance (calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation) of 45 mL/min or greater is 500 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

    2.3 Renal Impairment

    • Pemetrexed Injection dosing recommendations are provided for patients with a creatinine clearance (calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation) of 45 mL/min or greater [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2)]. There is no recommended dose for patients whose creatinine clearance is less than 45 mL/min [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

    2.4 Premedication and Concomitant Medications to Mitigate Toxicity

    Vitamin Supplementation

    • Initiate folic acid 400 mcg to 1000 mcg orally once daily, beginning 7 days before the first dose of Pemetrexed Injection and continuing until 21 days after the last dose of Pemetrexed Injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
    • Administer vitamin B12, 1 mg intramuscularly, 1 week prior to the first dose of Pemetrexed Injection and every 3 cycles thereafter. Subsequent vitamin B12 injections may be given the same day as treatment with Pemetrexed Injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Do not substitute oral vitamin B12 for intramuscular vitamin B12.

    Corticosteroids

    • Administer dexamethasone 4 mg orally twice daily for three consecutive days, beginning the day before each Pemetrexed Injection administration.

    2.5 Dosage Modification of Ibuprofen in Patients with Mild to Moderate Renal Impairment Receiving Pemetrexed Injection

    In patients with creatinine clearances between 45 mL/min and 79 mL/min, modify administration of ibuprofen as follows [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]:

    • Avoid administration of ibuprofen for 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days following administration of Pemetrexed Injection.
    • Monitor patients more frequently for myelosuppression, renal, and gastrointestinal toxicity, if concomitant administration of ibuprofen cannot be avoided.

    2.6 Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions

    Obtain complete blood count on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each cycle. Assess creatinine clearance prior to each cycle. Do not administer Pemetrexed Injection if the creatinine clearance is less than 45 mL/min.

    Delay initiation of the next cycle of Pemetrexed Injection until:

    • recovery of non-hematologic toxicity to Grade 0-2,
    • absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is 1500 cells/mm3 or higher, and
    • platelet count is 100,000 cells/mm3 or higher.

    Upon recovery, modify the dosage of Pemetrexed Injection in the next cycle as specified in Table 1.

    For dosing modifications for cisplatin, carboplatin, or pembrolizumab, refer to their prescribing information.

    Table 1: Recommended Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions*

    Toxicity in Most Recent Treatment Cycle

    Pemetrexed Injection Dose Modification for Next Cycle

    Myelosuppressive toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

         ANC less than 500/mm3 and platelets greater than or equal to 50,000/mm3
         OR
         Platelet count less than 50,000/mm3 without bleeding.

    75% of previous dose

         Platelet count less than 50,000/mm3 with bleeding

    50% of previous dose

         Recurrent Grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression after 2 dose reductions

    Discontinue

    Non-hematologic toxicity

         Any Grade 3 or 4 toxicities EXCEPT mucositis or neurologic toxicity
         OR
         Diarrhea requiring hospitalization

    75% of previous dose

         Grade 3 or 4 mucositis

    50% of previous dose

         Renal toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

    Withhold until creatinine clearance is 45 mL/min or greater

         Grade 3 or 4 neurologic toxicity

    Permanently discontinue

         Recurrent Grade 3 or 4 non-hematologic toxicity after 2 dose reductions

    Permanently discontinue

    •        Severe and life-threatening Skin Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

    Permanently discontinue

         Interstitial Pneumonitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

    Permanently discontinue

    *National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 2 (NCI CTCAE v2).

    2.7 Preparation for Administration

    Pemetrexed Injection is a hazardous drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.1

    • Calculate the dose of Pemetrexed Injection and determine the number of vials needed.
    • Withdraw the calculated dose of Pemetrexed Injection from the vial(s) and discard vial with any unused portion.
    • Further dilute Pemetrexed Injection with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (preservative–free) to achieve a total volume of 100 mL for intravenous infusion.
    • Visually inspect for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Discard if particulate matter or discoloration is observed.
    • Administer Pemetrexed Injection as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes.
    • If not used immediately, store diluted product under refrigerated conditions [2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F)] for no more than 24 hours from the time of dilution. Discard after 24 hours.
  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    Injection: Pemetrexed Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow or green-yellow solution available in sterile single-dose vials as follows:

    • 100 mg/4 mL (25 mg/mL)
    • 500 mg/20 mL (25 mg/mL)
    • 1000 mg/40 mL (25 mg/mL)
  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Pemetrexed Injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of severe hypersensitivity reaction to pemetrexed [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Myelosuppression and Increased Risk of Myelosuppression without Vitamin Supplementation

    Pemetrexed can cause severe myelosuppression resulting in a requirement for transfusions and which may lead to neutropenic infection. The risk of myelosuppression is increased in patients who do not receive vitamin supplementation. In Study JMCH, incidences of Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (38% versus 23%), thrombocytopenia (9% versus 5%), febrile neutropenia (9% versus 0.6%), and neutropenic infection (6% versus 0) were higher in patients who received pemetrexed plus cisplatin without vitamin supplementation as compared to patients who were fully supplemented with folic acid and vitamin B12 prior to and throughout pemetrexed plus cisplatin treatment.

    Initiate supplementation with oral folic acid and intramuscular vitamin B12 prior to the first dose of Pemetrexed Injection; continue vitamin supplementation during treatment and for 21 days after the last dose of Pemetrexed Injection to reduce the severity of hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity of Pemetrexed Injection [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

    Obtain a complete blood count at the beginning of each cycle. Do not administer Pemetrexed Injection until the ANC is at least 1500 cells/mm3 and platelet count is at least 100,000 cells/mm3. Permanently reduce Pemetrexed Injection in patients with an ANC of less than 500 cells/mm3 or platelet count of less than 50,000 cells/mm3 in previous cycles [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].

    In Studies JMDB and JMCH, among patients who received vitamin supplementation, incidence of Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia was 15% and 23%, the incidence of Grade 3 to 4 anemia was 6% and 4%, and incidence of Grade 3 to 4 thrombocytopenia was 4% and 5%, respectively. In Study JMCH, 18% of patients in the pemetrexed arm required red blood cell transfusions compared to 7% of patients in the cisplatin arm [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In Studies JMEN, PARAMOUNT, and JMEI, where all patients received vitamin supplementation, incidence of Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia ranged from 3% to 5%, and incidence of Grade 3 to 4 anemia ranged from 3% to 5%.

    5.2 Renal Failure

    Pemetrexed can cause severe, and sometimes fatal, renal toxicity. The incidences of renal failure in clinical studies in which patients received pemetrexed with cisplatin were: 2.1% in Study JMDB and 2.2% in Study JMCH. The incidence of renal failure in clinical studies in which patients received pemetrexed as a single agent ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% (Studies JMEN, PARAMOUNT, and JMEI [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Determine creatinine clearance before each dose and periodically monitor renal function during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection. Withhold Pemetrexed Injection in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 45 mL/minute [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

    5.3 Bullous and Exfoliative Skin Toxicity

    Serious and sometimes fatal, bullous, blistering and exfoliative skin toxicity, including cases suggestive of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis can occur with pemetrexed. Permanently discontinue Pemetrexed Injection for severe and life-threatening bullous, blistering or exfoliating skin toxicity.

    5.4 Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Serious interstitial pneumonitis, including fatal cases, can occur with pemetrexed treatment. Withhold Pemetrexed Injection for acute onset of new or progressive unexplained pulmonary symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, or fever pending diagnostic evaluation. If pneumonitis is confirmed, permanently discontinue Pemetrexed Injection.

    5.5 Radiation Recall

    Radiation recall can occur with pemetrexed in patients who have received radiation weeks to years previously. Monitor patients for inflammation or blistering in areas of previous radiation treatment. Permanently discontinue Pemetrexed Injection for signs of radiation recall.

    5.6 Increased Risk of Toxicity with Ibuprofen in Patients with Renal Impairment

    Exposure to pemetrexed is increased in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment who take concomitant ibuprofen, increasing the risks of adverse reactions of pemetrexed. In patients with creatinine clearances between 45 mL/min and 79 mL/min, avoid administration of ibuprofen for 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days following administration of Pemetrexed Injection. If concomitant ibuprofen use cannot be avoided, monitor patients more frequently for Pemetrexed Injection adverse reactions, including myelosuppression, renal, and gastrointestinal toxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Interactions (7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    5.7 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

    Based on findings from animal studies and its mechanism of action, pemetrexed can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal reproduction studies, intravenous administration of pemetrexed to pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis was teratogenic, resulting in developmental delays and increased malformations at doses lower than the recommended human dose of 500 mg/m2. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 6 months after the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 3 months after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)].

  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

    • Myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
    • Renal failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
    • Bullous and exfoliative skin toxicity [see Warning and Precautions (5.3)]
    • Interstitial pneumonitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
    • Radiation recall [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

    6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical trials and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

    In clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥20%) of pemetrexed, when administered as a single agent, are fatigue, nausea, and anorexia. The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥20%) of pemetrexed, when administered in combination with cisplatin are vomiting, neutropenia, anemia, stomatitis/pharyngitis, thrombocytopenia, and constipation. The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥20%) of pemetrexed, when administered in combination with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy, are fatigue/asthenia, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, cough, dyspnea, and pyrexia.

    Non-Squamous NSCLC

    First-line Treatment of Metastatic Non-squamous NSCLC with Pembrolizumab and Platinum Chemotherapy

    The safety of pemetrexed, in combination with pembrolizumab and investigator’s choice of platinum (either carboplatin or cisplatin), was investigated in Study KEYNOTE-189, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized (2:1), active-controlled trial in patients with previously untreated, metastatic non-squamous NSCLC with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. A total of 607 patients received pemetrexed, pembrolizumab, and platinum every 3 weeks for 4 cycles followed by pemetrexed and pembrolizumab (n=405), or placebo, pemetrexed, and platinum every 3 weeks for 4 cycles followed by placebo and pemetrexed (n=202). Patients with autoimmune disease that required systemic therapy within 2 years of treatment; a medical condition that required immunosuppression; or who had received more than 30 Gy of thoracic radiation within the prior 26 weeks were ineligible [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    The median duration of exposure to pemetrexed was 7.2 months (range: 1 day to 1.7 years). Seventy-two percent of patients received carboplatin. The study population characteristics were: median age of 64 years (range: 34 to 84), 49% age 65 years or older, 59% male, 94% White and 3% Asian, and 18% with history of brain metastases at baseline.

    Pemetrexed was discontinued for adverse reactions in 23% of patients in the pemetrexed, pembrolizumab, and platinum arm. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of pemetrexed in this arm were acute kidney injury (3%) and pneumonitis (2%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of pemetrexed occurred in 49% of patients in the pemetrexed, pembrolizumab, and platinum arm. The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to interruption of pemetrexed in this arm (≥2%) were neutropenia (12%), anemia (7%), asthenia (4%), pneumonia (4%), thrombocytopenia (4%), increased blood creatinine (3%), diarrhea (3%), and fatigue (3%).

    Table 2 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred in ≥20% of patients treated with pemetrexed, pembrolizumab, and platinum.

    Table 2: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥20% of Patients in KEYNOTE-189

    Pemetrexed

    Pembrolizumab

    Platinum Chemotherapy

    n=405

    Placebo

    Pemetrexed

    Platinum Chemotherapy

    n=202

    Adverse Reaction

    All Grades*

    (%)

    Grade 3-4

    (%)

    All Grades

    (%)

    Grade 3-4

    (%)

    Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Nausea

    56

    3.5

    52

    3.5

    Constipation

    35

    1.0

    32

    0.5

    Diarrhea

    31

    5

    21

    3.0

    Vomiting

    24

    3.7

    23

    3.0

    General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

    Fatigue

    56

    12

    58

    6

    Pyrexia

    20

    0.2

    15

    0

    Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders

    Decreased appetite

    28

    1.5

    30

    0.5

    Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

    Rash

    25

    2.0

    17

    2.5

    Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders

    Cough

    21

    0

    28

    0

    Dyspnea

    21

    3.7

    26

    5

    *Graded per NCI CTCAE version 4.03.

    Includes asthenia and fatigue.

    Includes genital rash, rash, rash generalized, rash macular, rash maculo-papular, rash papular, rash pruritic, and rash pustular.

    Table 3 summarizes the laboratory abnormalities that worsened from baseline in at least 20% of patients treated with pemetrexed, pembrolizumab, and platinum.

    Table 3: Laboratory Abnormalities Worsened from Baseline in ≥20% of Patients in KEYNOTE-189

    Pemetrexed

    Pembrolizumab

    Platinum Chemotherapy

    Placebo

    Pemetrexed

    Platinum Chemotherapy

    Laboratory Test*

    All Grades

    %

    Grades 3-4

    %

    All Grades

    %

    Grades 3-4

    %

    Chemistry

    Hyperglycemia

    63

    9

    60

    7

    Increased ALT

    47

    3.8

    42

    2.6

    Increased AST

    47

    2.8

    40

    1.0

    Hypoalbuminemia

    39

    2.8

    39

    1.1

    Increased creatinine

    37

    4.2

    25

    1.0

    Hyponatremia

    32

    7

    23

    6

    Hypophosphatemia

    30

    10

    28

    14

    Increased alkaline phosphatase

    26

    1.8

    29

    2.1

    Hypocalcemia

    24

    2.8

    17

    0.5

    Hyperkalemia

    24

    2.8

    19

    3.1

    Hypokalemia

    21

    5

    20

    5

    Hematology

    Anemia

    85

    17

    81

    18

    Lymphopenia

    64

    22

    64

    25

    Neutropenia

    48

    20

    41

    19

    Thrombocytopenia

    30

    12

    29

    8

    *Each test incidence is based on the number of patients who had both baseline and at least one on-study laboratory measurement available: pemetrexed/pembrolizumab/platinum chemotherapy (range: 381 to 401 patients) and placebo/pemetrexed/platinum chemotherapy (range: 184 to 197 patients).

    Graded per NCI CTCAE version 4.03.

    Initial Treatment in Combination with Cisplatin

    The safety of pemetrexed was evaluated in Study JMDB, a randomized (1:1), open-label, multicenter trial conducted in chemotherapy-naive patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Patients received either pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=839) or gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 intravenously on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=830). All patients were fully supplemented with folic acid and vitamin B12.

    Study JMDB excluded patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS of 2 or greater), uncontrolled third-space fluid retention, inadequate bone marrow reserve and organ function, or a calculated creatinine clearance less than 45 mL/min. Patients unable to stop using aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or unable to take folic acid, vitamin B12 or corticosteroids were also excluded from the study.

    The data described below reflect exposure to pemetrexed plus cisplatin in 839 patients in Study JMDB. Median age was 61 years (range 26 to 83 years); 70% of patients were men; 78% were White,16% were Asian, 2.9% were Hispanic or Latino, 2.1% were Black or African American, and <1% were other ethnicities; 36% had an ECOG PS 0. Patients received a median of 5 cycles of pemetrexed.

    Table 4 provides the frequency and severity of adverse reactions that occurred in ≥5% of 839 patients receiving pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin in Study JMDB. Study JMDB was not designed to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in adverse reaction rates for pemetrexed, as compared to the control arm, for any specified adverse reaction listed in Table 4.

    Table 4: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of Fully Vitamin-Supplemented Patients Receiving Pemetrexed in Combination with Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Study JMDB

    *NCI CTCAE version 2.0.

    Adverse Reaction*

    Pemetrexed /Cisplatin
    (N=839)

    Gemcitabine/Cisplatin
    (N=830)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    All adverse reactions

    90

    37

    91

    53

    Laboratory

       Hematologic

           Anemia

    33

    6

    46

    10

           Neutropenia

    29

    15

    38

    27

           Thrombocytopenia

    10

    4

    27

    13

       Renal

           Elevated creatinine

    10

    1

    7

    1

    Clinical

       Constitutional symptoms

           Fatigue

    43

    7

    45

    5

       Gastrointestinal

           Nausea

    56

    7

    53

    4

           Vomiting

    40

    6

    36

    6

           Anorexia

    27

    2

    24

    1

           Constipation

    21

    1

    20

    0

           Stomatitis/pharyngitis

    14

    1

    12

    0

           Diarrhea

    12

    1

    13

    2

           Dyspepsia/heartburn

    5

    0

    6

    0

       Neurology

           Sensory neuropathy

    9

    0

    12

    1

           Taste disturbance

    8

    0

    9

    0

       Dermatology/Skin

           Alopecia

    12

    0

    21

    1

           Rash/Desquamation

    7

    0

    8

    1

    The following additional adverse reactions of pemetrexed were observed.

    •   Incidence 1% to <5%
    •   Body as a Whole — febrile neutropenia, infection, pyrexia
    •   General Disorders — dehydration
    •   Metabolism and Nutrition — increased AST, increased ALT
    •   Renal —renal failure
    •   Eye Disorder — conjunctivitis
    •   Incidence <1%
    •   Cardiovascular — arrhythmia
    •   General Disorders — chest pain
    •   Metabolism and Nutrition — increased GGT
    •   Neurology — motor neuropathy

    Maintenance Treatment Following First-line Non-Pemetrexed Containing Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    In Study JMEN, the safety of pemetrexed was evaluated in a randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted in patients with non-progressive locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC following four cycles of a first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients received either pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 or matching placebo intravenously every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients in both study arms were fully supplemented with folic acid and vitamin B12.

    Study JMEN excluded patients with an ECOG PS of 2 or greater, uncontrolled third-space fluid retention, inadequate bone marrow reserve and organ function, or a calculated creatinine clearance less than 45 mL/min. Patients unable to stop using aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or unable to take folic acid, vitamin B12 or corticosteroids were also excluded from the study.

    The data described below reflect exposure to pemetrexed in 438 patients in Study JMEN. Median age was 61 years (range 26-83 years), 73% of patients were men; 65% were White, 31% were Asian, 2.9% were Hispanic or Latino, and <2% were other ethnicities; 39% had an ECOG PS 0. Patients received a median of 5 cycles of pemetrexed and a relative dose intensity of pemetrexed of 96%. Approximately half the patients (48%) completed at least six, 21-day cycles and 23% completed ten or more 21-day cycles of pemetrexed.

    Table 5 provides the frequency and severity of adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of the 438 pemetrexed-treated patients in Study JMEN.

    Table 5: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Pemetrexed in StudyJMEN

    *NCI CTCAE version 3.0.

    Adverse Reaction*

    Pemetrexed
    (N=438)

    Placebo
    (N=218)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    All adverse reactions

    66

    16

    37

    4

    Laboratory

       Hematologic

           Anemia

    15

    3

    6

    1

           Neutropenia

    6

    3

    0

    0

       Hepatic

           Increased ALT

    10

    0

    4

    0

           Increased AST

    8

    0

    4

    0

    Clinical

       Constitutional symptoms

           Fatigue

    25

    5

    11

    1

       Gastrointestinal

           Nausea

    19

    1

    6

    1

           Anorexia

    19

    2

    5

    0

           Vomiting

    9

    0

    1

    0

           Mucositis/stomatitis

    7

    1

    2

    0

           Diarrhea

    5

    1

    3

    0

    Infection

    5

    2

    2

    0

    Neurology

           Sensory neuropathy

    9

    1

    4

    0

       Dermatology/Skin

           Rash/desquamation

    10

    0

    3

    0

    The requirement for transfusions (9.5% versus 3.2%), primarily red blood cell transfusions, and for erythropoiesis stimulating agents (5.9% versus 1.8%) were higher in the pemetrexed arm compared to the placebo arm.

    The following additional adverse reactions were observed in patients who received pemetrexed.

    •   Incidence 1% to<5%
    •   Dermatology/Skin — alopecia, pruritus/itching
    •   Gastrointestinal — constipation
    •   General Disorders — edema, fever
    •   Hematologic — thrombocytopenia
    •   Eye Disorder — ocular surface disease (including conjunctivitis), increased lacrimation
    •   Incidence <1%
    •   Cardiovascular — supraventricular arrhythmia
    •   Dermatology/Skin — erythema multiforme
    •   General Disorders — febrile neutropenia, allergic reaction/hypersensitivity
    •   Neurology — motor neuropathy
    •   Renal — renal failure

    Maintenance Treatment Following First-line Pemetrexed Plus Platinum Chemotherapy

    The safety of pemetrexed was evaluated in PARAMOUNT, a randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study conducted in patients with non-squamous NSCLC with non-progressive (stable or responding disease) locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC following four cycles of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin as first-line therapy for NSCLC. Patients were randomized to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 or matching placebo intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients in both study arms received folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    PARAMOUNT excluded patients with an ECOG PS of 2 or greater, uncontrolled third-space fluid retention, inadequate bone marrow reserve and organ function, or a calculated creatinine clearance less than 45 mL/min. Patients unable to stop using aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or unable to take folic acid, vitamin B12 or corticosteroids were also excluded from the study.

    The data described below reflect exposure to pemetrexed in 333 patients in PARAMOUNT. Median age was 61 years (range 32 to 83 years); 58% of patients were men; 94% were White, 4.8% were Asian, and <1% were Black or African American; 36% had an ECOG PS 0. The median number of maintenance cycles was 4 for pemetrexed and placebo arms. Dose reductions for adverse reactions occurred in 3.3% of patients in the pemetrexed arm and 0.6% in the placebo arm. Dose delays for adverse reactions occurred in 22% of patients in the pemetrexed arm and 16% in the placebo arm.

    Table6 provides the frequency and severity of adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of the 333 pemetrexed-treated patients in PARAMOUNT.

    Table 6: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Pemetrexed in PARAMOUNT
    *NCI CTCAE version 3.0.

    Adverse Reaction*

    Pemetrexed
    (N=333)

    Placebo
    (N=167)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grades 3-4
    (%)

    All adverse reactions

    53

    17

    34

    4.8

    Laboratory

       Hematologic

           Anemia

    15

    4.8

    4.8

    0.6

           Neutropenia

    9

    3.9

    0.6

    0

    Clinical

       Constitutional symptoms

           Fatigue

    18

    4.5

    11

    0.6

    Gastrointestinal

           Nausea

    12

    0.3

    2.4

    0

           Vomiting

    6

    0

    1.8

    0

           Mucositis/stomatitis

    5

    0.3

    2.4

    0

    General disorders

           Edema

    5

    0

    3.6

    0

    The requirement for red blood cell (13% versus 4.8%) and platelet (1.5% versus 0.6%) transfusions, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (12% versus 7%), and granulocyte colony stimulating factors (6% versus 0%) were higher in the pemetrexed arm compared to the placebo arm.

    The following additional Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions were observed more frequently in the pemetrexed arm.

    •   Incidence 1% to <5%
    •   Blood/Bone Marrow — thrombocytopenia
    •   General Disorders — febrile neutropenia
    •   Incidence <1%
    •   Cardiovascular — ventricular tachycardia, syncope
    •   General Disorders — pain
    •   Gastrointestinal — gastrointestinal obstruction
    •   Neurologic — depression
    •   Renal — renal failure
    •   Vascular — pulmonary embolism

    Treatment of Recurrent Disease After Prior Chemotherapy

    The safety of pemetrexed was evaluated in Study JMEI, a randomized (1:1), open-label, active-controlled trial conducted in patients who had progressed following platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients received pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously or docetaxel 75 mg/m2 intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. All patients on the pemetrexed arm received folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    Study JMEI excluded patients with an ECOG PS of 3 or greater, uncontrolled third-space fluid retention, inadequate bone marrow reserve and organ function, or a calculated creatinine clearance less than 45 mL/min. Patients unable to discontinue aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or unable to take folic acid, vitamin B12 or corticosteroids were also excluded from the study.

    The data described below reflect exposure to pemetrexed in 265 patients in Study JMEI. Median age was 58 years (range 22 to 87 years); 73% of patients were men; 70% were White, 24% were Asian, 2.6% were Black or African American, 1.8% were Hispanic or Latino, and <2% were other ethnicities; 19% had an ECOG PS 0.

    Table 7 provides the frequency and severity of adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of the 265 pemetrexed-treated patients in Study JMEI. Study JMEI is not designed to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in adverse reaction rates for pemetrexed, as compared to the control arm, for any specified adverse reaction listed in the Table 7 below.

    Table 7: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of Fully Supplemented Patients Receiving Pemetrexed in Study JMEI
    *NCI CTCAE version 2.0.

    Adverse Reaction*

    Pemetrexed
    (N=265)

    Docetaxel
    (N=276)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grades 3-4
    (%)

    All Grade
    (%)

    Grades 3-4
    (%)

    Laboratory

       Hematologic

           Anemia

    19

    4

    22

    4

           Neutropenia

    11

    5

    45

    40

           Thrombocytopenia

    8

    2

    1

    0

       Hepatic

           Increased ALT

    8

    2

    1

    0

           Increased AST

    7

    1

    1

    0

    Clinical

       Gastrointestinal

           Nausea

    31

    3

    17

    2

           Anorexia

    22

    2

    24

    3

           Vomiting

    16

    2

    12

    1

           Stomatitis/pharyngitis

    15

    1

    17

    1

           Diarrhea

    13

    0

    24

    3

           Constipation

    6

    0

    4

    0

       Constitutional symptoms

           Fatigue

    34

    5

    36

    5

           Fever

    8

    0

    8

    0

       Dermatology/Skin

           Rash/desquamation

    14

    0

    6

    0

           Pruritus

    7

    0

    2

    0

           Alopecia

    6

    1

    38

    2

    The following additional adverse reactions were observed in patients assigned to receive pemetrexed.

    •   Incidence 1% to <5%
    •   Body as a Whole — abdominal pain, allergic reaction/hypersensitivity, febrile neutropenia, infection
    •   Dermatology/Skin — erythema multiforme
    •   Neurology — motor neuropathy, sensory neuropathy
    •   Incidence <1%
    •   Cardiovascular — supraventricular arrhythmias
    •   Renal — renal failure

    Mesothelioma

    The safety of pemetrexed was evaluated in Study JMCH, a randomized (1:1), single-blind study conducted in patients with MPM who had received no prior chemotherapy for MPM. Patients received pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously in combination with cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle or cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Safety was assessed in 226 patients who received at least one dose of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin and 222 patients who received at least one dose of cisplatin alone. Among 226 patients who received pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin, 74% (n=168) received full supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 during study therapy, 14% (n=32) were never supplemented, and 12% (n=26) were partially supplemented.

    Study JMCH excluded patients with Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of less than 70, inadequate bone marrow reserve and organ function, or a calculated creatinine clearance less than 45 mL/min. Patients unable to stop using aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were also excluded from the study.

    The data described below reflect exposure to pemetrexed in 168 patients that were fully supplemented with folic acid and vitamin B12. Median age was 60 years (range 19 to 85 years); 82% were men; 92% were White, 5% were Hispanic or Latino, 3.0% were Asian, and <1% were other ethnicities; 54% had KPS of 90-100. The median number of treatment cycles administered was 6 in the pemetrexed/cisplatin fully supplemented group and 2 in the pemetrexed /cisplatin never supplemented group. Patients receiving pemetrexed in the fully supplemented group had a relative dose intensity of 93% of the protocol-specified pemetrexed dose intensity. The most common adverse reaction resulting in dose delay was neutropenia.

    Table 8 provides the frequency and severity of adverse reactions ≥5% in the subgroup of pemetrexed-treated patients who were fully vitamin supplemented in Study JMCH. Study JMCH was not designed to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in adverse reaction rates for pemetrexed, as compared to the control arm, for any specified adverse reaction listed in the table below.

    Table 8: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of Fully Supplemented Subgroup of Patients Receiving Pemetrexed/Cisplatin in Study JMCH*
    *In Study JMCH, 226 patients received at least one dose of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin and 222 patients received at least one dose of cisplatin. Table 8 provides the ADRs for subgroup of patients treated with pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin (168 patients) or cisplatin alone (163 patients) who received full supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 during study therapy.
    NCI CTCAE version 2.0.

    Adverse Reaction

    Pemetrexed/cisplatin
    (N=168)

    Cisplatin
    (N=163)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    All Grades
    (%)

    Grade 3-4
    (%)

    Laboratory

       Hematologic

           Neutropenia

    56

    23

    13

    3

           Anemia

    26

    4

    10

    0

           Thrombocytopenia

    23

    5

    9

    0

       Renal

           Elevated creatinine

    11

    1

    10

    1

           Decreased creatinine clearance

    16

    1

    18

    2

    Clinical

       Eye Disorder

           Conjunctivitis

    5

    0

    1

    0

       Gastrointestinal

           Nausea

    82

    12

    77

    6

           Vomiting

    57

    11

    50

    4

           Stomatitis/pharyngitis

    23

    3

    6

    0

           Anorexia

    20

    1

    14

    1

           Diarrhea

    17

    4

    8

    0

           Constipation

    12

    1

    7

    1

           Dyspepsia

    5

    1

    1

    0

       Constitutional Symptoms

           Fatigue

    48

    10

    42

    9

       Metabolism and Nutrition

           Dehydration

    7

    4

    1

    1

       Neurology

           Sensory neuropathy

    10

    0

    10

    1

           Taste disturbance

    8

    0

    6

    0

       Dermatology/Skin

           Rash

    16

    1

    5

    0

           Alopecia

    11

    0

    6

    0

    The following additional adverse reactions were observed in patients receiving pemetrexed plus cisplatin:

    •   Incidence 1% to <5%
    •   Body as a Whole — febrile neutropenia, infection, pyrexia
    •   Dermatology/Skin — urticaria
    •   General Disorders — chest pain
    •   Metabolism and Nutrition — increased AST, increased ALT, increased GGT
    •   Renal — renal failure
    •   Incidence <1%
    •   Cardiovascular — arrhythmia
    •   Neurology — motor neuropathy

    Exploratory Subgroup Analyses based on Vitamin Supplementation

    Table 9 provides the results of exploratory analyses of the frequency and severity of NCI CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions reported in more pemetrexed-treated patients who did not receive vitamin supplementation (never supplemented) as compared with those who received vitamin supplementation with daily folic acid and vitamin B12 from the time of enrollment in Study JMCH (fully-supplemented).

    Table 9: Exploratory Subgroup Analysis of Selected Grade 3/4 Adverse Reactions Occurring in Patients Receiving Pemetrexed in Combination with Cisplatin with or without Full Vitamin Supplementation in Study JMCH*

    *NCI CTCAE version 2.0.

    Grade 3-4 Adverse Reactions

    Fully Supplemented Patients
    N=168
    (%)

    Never Supplemented Patients
    N=32
    (%)

    Neutropenia

    23

    38

    Thrombocytopenia

    5

    9

    Vomiting

    11

    31

    Febrile neutropenia

    1

    9

    Infection with Grade 3/4 neutropenia

    0

    6

    Diarrhea

    4

    9

    The following adverse reactions occurred more frequently in patients who were fully vitamin supplemented than in patients who were never supplemented:

    • hypertension (11% versus 3%),
    • chest pain (8% versus 6%),
    • thrombosis/embolism (6% versus 3%).

    Additional Experience Across Clinical Trials

    Sepsis, with or without neutropenia, including fatal cases: 1%

    Severe esophagitis, resulting in hospitalization: <1%

    6.2 Postmarketing Experience

    The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of pemetrexed. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

    •   Blood and Lymphatic System — immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
    •   Gastrointestinal — colitis, pancreatitis
    •   General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions — edema
    •   Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications — radiation recall
    •   Respiratory — interstitial pneumonitis
    •   Skin — Serious and fatal bullous skin conditions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Effects of Ibuprofen on Pemetrexed

    Ibuprofen increases exposure (AUC) of pemetrexed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In patients with creatinine clearance between 45 mL/min and 79 mL/min:

    • Avoid administration of ibuprofen for 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days following administration of pemetrexed [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
    • Monitor patients more frequently for myelosuppression, renal, and gastrointestinal toxicity, if concomitant administration of ibuprofen cannot be avoided.
  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Risk Summary

    Based on findings from animal studies and its mechanism of action, pemetrexed can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. There are no available data on Pemetrexed Injection use in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, intravenous administration of pemetrexed to pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis was teratogenic, resulting in developmental delays and malformations at doses lower than the recommended human dose of 500 mg/m2 [see Data]. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus [see Use in Special Populations (8.3)].

    In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

    Data

    Animal Data

    Pemetrexed was teratogenic in mice. Daily dosing of pemetrexed by intravenous injection to pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis increased the incidence of fetal malformations (cleft palate; protruding tongue; enlarged or misshaped kidney; and fused lumbar vertebra) at doses (based on BSA) 0.03 times the human dose of 500 mg/m2. At doses, based on BSA, greater than or equal to 0.0012 times the 500 mg/m2 human dose, pemetrexed administration resulted in dose-dependent increases in developmental delays (incomplete ossification of talus and skull bone; and decreased fetal weight).

    8.2 Lactation

    Risk Summary

    There is no information regarding the presence of pemetrexed or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from Pemetrexed Injection, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for one week after the last dose.

    8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    Based on animal data pemetrexed can cause malformations and developmental delays when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Pregnancy Testing

    Verify pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating Pemetrexed Injection [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Contraception

    Females

    Because of the potential for genotoxicity, advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 6 months after the last dose of Pemetrexed Injection.

    Males

    Because of the potential for genotoxicity, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 3 months after the last dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    Infertility

    Males

    Pemetrexed may impair fertility in males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    The safety and effectiveness of pemetrexed in pediatric patients have not been established.

    The safety and pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed were evaluated in two clinical studies conducted in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors (NCT00070473, N=32 and NCT00520936, N=72). Patients in both studies received concomitant vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and dexamethasone.

    No tumor responses were observed. Adverse reactions observed in pediatric patients were similar to those observed in adults.

    Pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed in 22 patients age 4 to 18 years enrolled in NCT00070473 were within range of values in adults.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    Of the 3,946 patients enrolled in clinical studies of pemetrexed, 34% were 65 and over and 4% were 75 and over. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. The incidences of Grade 3 to 4 anemia, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, hypertension, and neutropenia were higher in patients 65 years of age and older as compared to younger patients: in at least one of five randomized clinical trials [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.1, 14.2)].

    8.6 Patients with Renal Impairment

    Pemetrexed is primarily excreted by the kidneys. Decreased renal function results in reduced clearance and greater exposure (AUC) to pemetrexed compared with patients with normal renal function [Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose is recommended for patients with creatinine clearance less than 45 mL/min [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    No drugs are approved for the treatment of pemetrexed overdose. Based on animal studies, administration of leucovorin may mitigate the toxicities of pemetrexed overdosage. It is not known whether pemetrexed is dialyzable.

  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Pemetrexed Injection is a folate analog metabolic inhibitor. The drug substance, pemetrexed disodium, has the chemical name N-[[4-[2-(2-Amino-4-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]phenyl] carbonyl] -L-glutamic acid disodium, 2.5H2O with a molecular formula of C20H19N5Na2O6 2.5 H2O and a molecular weight of 516.41 The structural formula is as follows:

    chemical-structure

    Pemetrexed Injection is supplied as a sterile clear colorless to yellow or green-yellow solution for intravenous infusion available in single-dose vials.

    Each mL contains 25 mg pemetrexed (30.2 mg pemetrexed disodium 2.5 hydrate), 0.5 mg sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, 50 mg propylene glycol, water for injection. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added to adjust pH.

    Pemetrexed Injection requires dilution prior to intravenous infusion. Pemetrexed Injection should be diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection (preservative-free) to achieve a total volume of 100 mL for intravenous infusion.

  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    Pemetrexed is a folate analog metabolic inhibitor that disrupts folate-dependent metabolic processes essential for cell replication. In vitro studies show that pemetrexed inhibits thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase, and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), which are folate-dependent enzymes involved in the de novo biosynthesis of thymidine and purine nucleotides. Pemetrexed is taken into cells by membrane carriers such as the reduced folate carrier and membrane folate binding protein transport systems. Once in the cell, pemetrexed is converted to polyglutamate forms by the enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase. The polyglutamate forms are retained in cells and are inhibitors of TS and GARFT.

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    Pemetrexed inhibited the in vitro growth of mesothelioma cell lines (MSTO-211H, NCI-H2052) and showed synergistic effects when combined with cisplatin.

    Based on population pharmacodynamic analyses, the depth of the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) nadir correlates with the systemic exposure to pemetrexed and supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12. There is no cumulative effect of pemetrexed exposure on ANC nadir over multiple treatment cycles.

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    Absorption

    The pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed administered as a single agent in doses ranging from 0.2 to 838 mg/m2 infused over a 10-minute period have been evaluated in 426 cancer patients with a variety of solid tumors. Pemetrexed total systemic exposure (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) increased proportionally with increase of dose. The pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed did not change over multiple treatment cycles.

    Distribution

    Pemetrexed has a steady-state volume of distribution of 16.1 liters. In vitro studies indicated that pemetrexed is 81% bound to plasma proteins.

    Elimination

    The total systemic clearance of pemetrexed is 91.8 mL/min and the elimination half-life of pemetrexed is 3.5 hours in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance of 90 mL/min). As renal function decreases, the clearance of pemetrexed decreases and exposure (AUC) of pemetrexed increases.

    Metabolism

    Pemetrexed is not metabolized to an appreciable extent.

    Excretion

    Pemetrexed is primarily eliminated in the urine, with 70% to 90% of the dose recovered unchanged within the first 24 hours following administration. In vitro studies indicated that pemetrexed is a substrate of OAT3 (organic anion transporter 3), a transporter that is involved in the active secretion of pemetrexed.

    Specific Populations

    Age (26 to 80 years) and sex had no clinically meaningful effect on the systemic exposure of pemetrexed based on population pharmacokinetic analyses.

    Racial Groups

    The pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed were similar in Whites and Blacks or African Americans. Insufficient data are available for other ethnic groups.

    Patients with Hepatic Impairment

    Pemetrexed has not been formally studied in patients with hepatic impairment. No effect of elevated AST, ALT, or total bilirubin on the PK of pemetrexed was observed in clinical studies.

    Patients with Renal Impairment

    Pharmacokinetic analyses of pemetrexed included 127 patients with impaired renal function. Plasma clearance of pemetrexed decreases as renal function decreases, with a resultant increase in systemic exposure. Patients with creatinine clearances of 45, 50, and 80 mL/min had 65%, 54%, and 13% increases, respectively in systemic exposure (AUC) compared to patients with creatinine clearance of 100 mL/min [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Third-Space Fluid

    The pemetrexed plasma concentrations in patients with various solid tumors with stable, mild to moderate third-space fluid were comparable to those observed in patients without third space fluid collections. The effect of severe third space fluid on pharmacokinetics is not known.

    Drug Interaction Studies

    Drugs Inhibiting OAT3 Transporter

    Ibuprofen, an OAT3 inhibitor, administered at 400 mg four times a day decreased the clearance of pemetrexed and increased its exposure (AUC) by approximately 20% in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance >80 mL/min).

    In Vitro Studies

    Pemetrexed is a substrate for OAT3. Ibuprofen, an OAT3 inhibitor inhibited the uptake of pemetrexed in OAT3-expressing cell cultures with an average [Iu]/IC50 ratio of 0.38. In vitro data predict that at clinically relevant concentrations, other NSAIDs (naproxen, diclofenac, celecoxib) would not inhibit the uptake of pemetrexed by OAT3 and would not increase the AUC of pemetrexed to a clinically significant extent. [see Drug Interactions (7)].

    Pemetrexed is a substrate for OAT4. In vitro, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs (naproxen, diclofenac, celecoxib) are not inhibitors of OAT4 at clinically relevant concentrations.

    Aspirin

    Aspirin, administered in low to moderate doses (325 mg every 6 hours), does not affect the pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed.

    Cisplatin

    Cisplatin does not affect the pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed and the pharmacokinetics of total platinum are unaltered by pemetrexed.

    Vitamins

    Neither folic acid nor vitamin B12 affect the pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed.

    Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    In vitro studies suggest that pemetrexed does not inhibit the clearance of drugs metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2.

  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with pemetrexed. Pemetrexed was clastogenic in an in vivo micronucleus assay in mouse bone marrow but was not mutagenic in multiple in vitro tests (Ames assay, Chinese Hamster Ovary cell assay).

    Pemetrexed administered intraperitoneally at doses of ≥0.1 mg/kg/day to male mice (approximately 0.0006 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) resulted in reduced fertility, hypospermia, and testicular atrophy.

  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Non-Squamous NSCLC

    Initial Treatment in Combination with Pembrolizumab and Platinum

    The efficacy of pemetrexed in combination with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy was investigated in Study KEYNOTE-189 (NCT02578680), a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, active-controlled trial conducted in patients with metastatic non-squamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression status, who had not previously received systemic therapy for metastatic disease and in whom there were no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. Patients with autoimmune disease that required systemic therapy within 2 years of treatment; a medical condition that required immunosuppression; or who had received more than 30 Gy of thoracic radiation within the prior 26 weeks were ineligible. Randomization was stratified by smoking status (never versus former/current), choice of platinum (cisplatin versus carboplatin), and tumor PD-L1 status (TPS <1% [negative] versus TPS ≥1%). Patients were randomized (2:1) to one of the following treatment arms:

    • Pemetrexed 500 mg/m2, pembrolizumab 200 mg, and investigator’s choice of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 or carboplatin AUC 5 mg/mL/min intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle for 4 cycles followed by pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 and pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks. Pemetrexed was administered after pembrolizumab and prior to platinum chemotherapy on Day 1.
    • Placebo, pemetrexed 500 mg/m2, and investigator’s choice of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 or carboplatin AUC 5 mg/mL/min intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle for 4 cycles followed by placebo and pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks.

    Treatment with pemetrexed continued until RECIST v1.1 (modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of 5 target lesions per organ)-defined progression of disease as determined by the investigator or unacceptable toxicity. Patients randomized to placebo, pemetrexed, and platinum chemotherapy were offered pembrolizumab as a single agent at the time of disease progression.

    Assessment of tumor status was performed at Week 6, Week 12, and then every 9 weeks thereafter. The main efficacy outcome measures were OS and PFS as assessed by BICR RECIST v1.1, modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of five target lesions per organ. Additional efficacy outcome measures were ORR and duration of response, as assessed by the BICR according to RECIST v1.1, modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of 5 target lesions per organ.

    A total of 616 patients were randomized: 410 patients to the pemetrexed, pembrolizumab, and platinum chemotherapy arm and 206 to the placebo, pemetrexed, and platinum chemotherapy arm. The study population characteristics were: median age of 64 years (range: 34 to 84); 49% age 65 or older; 59% male; 94% White and 3% Asian; 56% ECOG performance status of 1; and 18% with history of brain metastases. Thirty-one percent had tumor PD-L1 expression TPS <1%. Seventy-two percent received carboplatin and 12% were never smokers. A total of 85 patients in the placebo, pemetrexed, and chemotherapy arm received an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibody at the time of disease progression.

    The trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in OS and PFS for patients randomized to pemetrexed in combination with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy compared with placebo, pemetrexed, and platinum chemotherapy (see Table 10 and Figure 1).

    Table 10: Efficacy Results of KEYNOTE-189

    Endpoint

    Pemetrexed

    Pembrolizumab

    Platinum Chemotherapy

    n=410

    Placebo

    Pemetrexed

    Platinum Chemotherapy

    n=206

    OS

    Number (%) of patients with event

    127 (31%)

    108 (52%)

    Median in months (95% CI)

    NR

    (NR, NR)

    11.3

    (8.7, 15.1)

    Hazard ratio* (95% CI)

    0.49 (0.38, 0.64)

    p-value

    <0.0001

    PFS

    Number of patients with event (%)

    244 (60%)

    166 (81%)

    Median in months (95% CI)

    8.8 (7.6, 9.2)

    4.9 (4.7, 5.5)

    Hazard ratio* (95% CI)

    0.52 (0.43, 0.64)

    p-value

    <0.0001

    ORR

    Overall response rate (95% CI)

    48% (43, 53)

    19% (14, 25)

    Complete response

    0.5%

    0.5%

    Partial response

    47%

    18%

    p-value§

    <0.0001

    Duration of Response

    Median in months (range)

    11.2 (1.1+, 18+)

    7.8 (2.1+, 16.4+)

    * Based on the stratified Cox proportional hazard model.

    Based on stratified log-rank test.

    Response: Best objective response as confirmed complete response or partial response.

    §Based on Miettinen and Nurminen method stratified by PD-L1 status, platinum chemotherapy and smoking status.

    NR = not reached

    figure-1

    Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Curve for Overall Survival in KEYNOTE-189

    Initial Treatment in Combination with Cisplatin

    The efficacy of pemetrexed was evaluated in Study JMDB (NCT00087711), a multi-center, randomized (1:1), open-label study conducted in 1725 chemotherapy-naive patients with Stage IIIb/IV NSCLC. Patients were randomized to receive pemetrexed with cisplatin or gemcitabine with cisplatin. Randomization was stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS 0 versus 1), gender, disease stage, basis for pathological diagnosis (histopathological/cytopathological), history of brain metastases, and investigative center. Pemetrexed was administered intravenously over 10 minutes at a dose of 500 mg/m2 on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Cisplatin was administered intravenously at a dose of 75 mg/m2 approximately 30 minutes after pemetrexed administration on Day 1 of each cycle, gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 1250 mg/m2 on Day 1 and Day 8, and cisplatin was administered intravenously at a dose of 75 mg/m2 approximately 30 minutes after administration of gemcitabine, on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Treatment was administered up to a total of 6 cycles; patients in both arms received folic acid, vitamin B12, and dexamethasone [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. The primary efficacy outcome measure was overall survival.

    A total of 1725 patients were enrolled with 862 patients randomized to pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin and 863 patients to gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin. The median age was 61 years (range 26 to 83 years), 70% were male, 78% were White, 17% were Asian, 2.9% were Hispanic or Latino, and 2.1% were Black or African American, and <1% were other ethnicities. Among patients for whom ECOG PS (n=1722) and smoking history (n=1516) were collected, 65% had an ECOG PS of 1, 36% had an ECOG PS of 0, and 84% were smokers. For tumor characteristics, 73% had non-squamous NSCLC and 27% had squamous NSCLC; 76% had Stage IV disease. Among 1252 patients with non-squamous NSCLC histology, 68% had a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, 12% had large cell histology and 20% had other histologic subtypes.

    Efficacy results in Study JMDB are presented in Table 11 and Figure 2.

    Table 11: Efficacy Results in Study JMDB

    *Unadjusted for multiple comparisons.

    Efficacy Parameter

    Pemetrexed plus Cisplatin
    (N=862)

    Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin
    (N=863)

    Overall Survival

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    10.3
    (9.8-11.2)

    10.3
    (9.6-10.9)

           Hazard ratio (HR)*,†
            (95% CI)

    0.94
    (0.84-1.05)

    Progression-Free Survival

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    4.8
    (4.6-5.3)

    5.1
    (4.6-5.5)

           Hazard ratio (HR)*,†
            (95% CI)

    1.04
    (0.94-1.15)

    Overall Response Rate
            (95% CI)

    27.1%
    (24.2-30.1)

    24.7%
    (21.8-27.6)

    Adjusted for gender, stage, basis of diagnosis, and performance status.

    Figure2

    Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in Study JMDB

    In pre-specified analyses assessing the impact of NSCLC histology on overall survival, clinically relevant differences in survival according to histology were observed. These subgroup analyses are shown in Table 12andFigures 3and4. This difference in treatment effect for pemetrexed based on histology demonstrating a lack of efficacy in squamous cell histology was also observed in Studies JMEN and JMEI.

    Table 12: Overall Survival in NSCLC Histologic Subgroups in Study JMDB
    *Unadjusted for multiple comparisons.
    Adjusted for ECOG PS, gender, disease stage, and basis for pathological diagnosis (histopathological/cytopathological).

    Histologic Subgroups

    Pemetrexed plus Cisplatin
    (N=862)

    Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin
    (N=863)

    Non-squamous NSCLC (N=1252)

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    11.0
    (10.1-12.5)

    10.1
    (9.3-10.9)

           HR*,†
            (95% CI)

    0.84
    (0.74-0.96)

    Adenocarcinoma (N=847)

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    12.6
    (10.7-13.6)

    10.9
    (10.2-11.9)

           HR*,†
            (95% CI)

    0.84
    (0.71-0.99)

    Large Cell (N=153)

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    10.4
    (8.6-14.1)

    6.7
    (5.5-9.0)

           HR*,†
            (95% CI)

    0.67
    (0.48-0.96)

    Non-squamous, not otherwise specified (N=252)

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    8.6
    (6.8-10.2)

    9.2
    (8.1-10.6)

    HR*,†
    (95% CI)

    1.08
    (0.81-1.45)

    Squamous Cell(N=473)

    Median (months)
    (95% CI)

    9.4
    (8.4-10.2)

    10.8
    (9.5-12.1)

    HR*,†
    (95% CI)

    1.23
    (1.00-1.51)

    Figure3

    Figure 3: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in Non-squamous NSCLC in Study JMDB

    Figure4

    Figure 4: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in Squamous NSCLC in Study JMDB

    Maintenance Treatment Following First-line Non-Pemetrexed Containing Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    The efficacy of pemetrexed as maintenance therapy following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy was evaluated in Study JMEN (NCT00102804), a multicenter, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in 663 patients with Stage IIIb/IV NSCLC who did not progress after four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days or placebo until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Patients in both study arms received folic acid, vitamin B12, and dexamethasone [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Randomization was carried out using a minimization approach [Pocock and Simon (1975)] using the following factors: gender, ECOG PS (0 versus 1), response to prior chemotherapy (complete or partial response versus stable disease), history of brain metastases (yes versus no), non-platinum component of induction therapy (docetaxel versus gemcitabine versus paclitaxel), and disease stage (IIIb versus IV). The major efficacy outcome measures were progression-free survival based on assessment by independent review and overall survival; both were measured from the date of randomization in Study JMEN.

    A total of 663 patients were enrolled with 441 patients randomized to pemetrexed and 222 patients randomized to placebo. The median age was 61 years (range 26 to 83 years); 73% were male; 65% were White, 32% were Asian, 2.9% were Hispanic or Latino, and <2% were other ethnicities; 60% had an ECOG PS of 1; and 73% were current or former smokers. Median time from initiation of platinum-based chemotherapy to randomization was 3.3 months (range 1.6 to 5.1 months) and 49% of the population achieved a partial or complete response to first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. With regard to tumor characteristics, 81% had Stage IV disease, 73% had non-squamous NSCLC and 27% had squamous NSCLC. Among the 481 patients with non-squamous NSCLC, 68% had adenocarcinoma, 4% had large cell, and 28% had other histologies.

    Efficacy results are presented in Table 13andFigure 5.

    Table 13: Efficacy Results in Study JMEN

    Efficacy Parameter

    Pemetrexed

    Placebo

    Overall survival

    N=441

    N=222

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    13.4
    (11.9-15.9)

    10.6
    (8.7-12.0)

           Hazard ratio*
            (95% CI)

    0.79
    (0.65-0.95)

           p-value

    p=0.012

    Progression-free survival per independent review

    N=387

    N=194

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    4.0
    (3.1-4.4)

    2.0
    (1.5-2.8)

           Hazard ratio*
            (95% CI)

    0.60
    (0.49-0.73)

           p-value

    p<0.00001

    Figure5

    *Hazard ratios are not adjusted for multiplicity but not for stratification variables.

    The results of pre-specified subgroup analyses by NSCLC histology are presented in Table 14andFigures 6and7.

    *Hazard ratios are not adjusted for multiplicity.
    Primary diagnosis of NSCLC not specified as adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma.

    Efficacy Parameter

    Overall Survival

    Progression-Free Survival
    Per Independent Review

    Pemetrexed
    (N=441)

    Placebo
    (N=222)

    Pemetrexed
    (N=387)

    Placebo
    (N=194)

    Non-squamous NSCLC (n=481)

           Median (months)

    15.5

    10.3

    4.4

    1.8

           HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.70
    (0.56-0.88)

    0.47
    (0.37-0.60)

    Adenocarcinoma (n=328)

           Median (months)

    16.8

    11.5

    4.6

    2.7

           HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.73
    (0.56-0.96)

    0.51
    (0.38-0.68)

    Large cell carcinoma (n=20)

           Median (months)

    8.4

    7.9

    4.5

    1.5

           HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.98
    (0.36-2.65)

    0.40
    (0.12-1.29)

    Other (n=133)

           Median (months)

    11.3

    7.7

    4.1

    1.6

           HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.61
    (0.40-0.94)

    0.44 (0.28-0.68)

    Squamous cell NSCLC (n=182)

           Median (months)

    9.9

    10.8

    2.4

    2.5

           HR*
            (95% CI)

    1.07
    (0.77-1.50)

    1.03
    (0.71-1.49)

    Figure6
    Figure7

    Figure 7: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in Squamous NSCLC in Study JMEN

    Maintenance Treatment Following First-line Pemetrexed Plus Platinum Chemotherapy

    The efficacy of pemetrexed as maintenance therapy following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy was also evaluated in PARAMOUNT (NCT00789373), a multi-center, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in patients with Stage IIIb/IV non-squamous NSCLC who had completed four cycles of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin and achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD). Patients were required to have an ECOG PS of 0 or 1. Patients were randomized to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days or placebo until disease progression. Randomization was stratified by response to pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin induction therapy (CR or PR versus SD), disease stage (IIIb versus IV), and ECOG PS (0 versus 1). Patients in both arms received folic acid, vitamin B12, and dexamethasone. The main efficacy outcome measure was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and an additional efficacy outcome measure was overall survival (OS); PFS and OS were measured from the time of randomization.

    A total of 539 patients were enrolled with 359 patients randomized to pemetrexed and 180 patients randomized to placebo. The median age was 61 years (range 32 to 83 years); 58% were male; 95% were White, 4.5% were Asian, and <1% were Black or African American; 67% had an ECOG PS of 1; 78% were current or former smokers; and 43% of the population achieved a partial or complete response to first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. With regard to tumor characteristics, 91% had Stage IV disease, 87% had adenocarcinoma, 7% had large cell, and 6% had other histologies.

    Efficacy results for PARAMOUNT are presented in Table 15andFigure 8.

    *Hazard ratios are adjusted for multiplicity but not for stratification variables.
    Based on investigator’s assessment.

    Efficacy Parameter

    Pemetrexed
    (N=359)

    Placebo
    (N=180)

    Overall survival

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    13.9
    (12.8-16.0)

    11.0

    (10.0-12.5)

           Hazard ratio (HR)*
            (95% CI)

    0.78
    (0.64-0.96)

           p-value

    p=0.02

    Progression-free survival

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    4.1
    (3.2-4.6)

    2.8
    (2.6-3.1)

           Hazard ratio (HR)*
            (95% CI)

    0.62
    (0.49-0.79)

           p-value

    p<0.0001

    Figure8

    Figure 8: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in PARAMOUNT

    Treatment of Recurrent Disease After Prior Chemotherapy

    The efficacy of pemetrexed was evaluated in Study JMEI (NCT00004881), a multicenter, randomized (1:1), open-label study conducted in patients with Stage III or IV NSCLC that had recurred or progressed following one prior chemotherapy regimen for advanced disease. Patients were randomized to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously or docetaxel 75 mg/m2 as a 1-hour intravenous infusion once every 21 days. Patients randomized to pemetrexed also received folic acid and vitamin B12. The study was designed to show that overall survival with pemetrexed was non-inferior to docetaxel, as the major efficacy outcome measure, and that overall survival was superior for patients randomized to pemetrexed compared to docetaxel, as a secondary outcome measure.

    A total of 571 patients were enrolled with 283 patients randomized to pemetrexed and 288 patients randomized to docetaxel. The median age was 58 years (range 22 to 87 years); 72% were male; 71% were White, 24% were Asian, 2.8% were Black or African American, 1.8% were Hispanic or Latino, and <2% were other ethnicities; 88% had an ECOG PS of 0 or 1. With regard to tumor characteristics, 75% had Stage IV disease; 53% had adenocarcinoma, 30% had squamous histology; 8% large cell; and 9% had other histologic subtypes of NSCLC.

    The efficacy results in the overall population and in subgroup analyses based on histologic subtype are provided in Tables 16 and 17, respectively. Study JMEI did not show an improvement in overall survival in the intent-to-treat population. In subgroup analyses, there was no evidence of a treatment effect on survival in patients with squamous NSCLC; the absence of a treatment effect in patients with NSCLC of squamous histology was also observed Studies JMDB and JMEN [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    *Hazard ratios are not adjusted for multiplicity or for stratification variables.

    Efficacy Parameter

    Pemetrexed
    (N=283)

    Docetaxel
    (N=288)

    Overall survival

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    8.3
    (7.0-9.4)

    7.9
    (6.3-9.2)

           Hazard ratio*
            (95% CI)

    0.99
    (0.82-1.20)

    Progression-free survival

           Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    2.9
    (2.4-3.1)

    2.9
    (2.7-3.4)

           Hazard ratio*
            (95% CI)

    0.97
    (0.82-1.16)

    Overall response rate
            (95% CI)

    8.5%
    (5.2-11.7)

    8.3%
    (5.1-11.5)

    Table 17: Exploratory Efficacy Analyses by Histologic Subgroup in Study JMEI

    *Hazard ratio unadjusted for multiple comparisons.
    †Primary diagnosis of NSCLC not specified as adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma

    Histologic Subgroups

    Pemetrexed
    (N=283)

    Docetaxel
    (N=288)

    Non-squamous NSCLC (N=399)

            Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    9.3
    (7.8-9.7)

    8.0
    (6.3-9.3)

            HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.89
    (0.71-1.13)

    Adenocarcinoma (N=301)

            Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    9.0
    (7.6-9.6)

    9.2
    (7.5-11.3)

            HR*
            (95% CI)

    1.09
    (0.83-1.44)

    Large Cell (N=47)

            Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    12.8
    (5.8-14.0)

    4.5
    (2.3-9.1)

            HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.38
    (0.18-0.78)

    Other (N=51)

            Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    9.4
    (6.0-10.1)

    7.9
    (4.0-8.9)

            HR*
            (95% CI)

    0.62
    (0.32-1.23)

    Squamous NSCLC (N=172)

            Median (months)
            (95% CI)

    6.2
    (4.9-8.0)

    7.4
    (5.6-9.5)

            HR*
            (95% CI)

    1.32
    (0.93-1.86)

    14.2 Mesothelioma

    The efficacy of pemetrexed was evaluated in Study JMCH (NCT00005636), a multicenter, randomized (1:1), single-blind study conducted in patients with MPM who had received no prior chemotherapy. Patients were randomized (n=456) to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 intravenously over 10 minutes followed 30 minutes later by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously over two hours on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle or to receive cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously over 2 hours on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle; treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The study was modified after randomization and treatment of 117 patients to require that all patients receive folic acid 350 mcg to 1000 mcg daily beginning 1 to 3 weeks prior to the first dose of pemetrexed and continuing until 1 to 3 weeks after the last dose, vitamin B12 1000 mcg intramuscularly 1 to 3 weeks prior to first dose of pemetrexed and every 9 weeks thereafter, and dexamethasone 4 mg orally, twice daily, for 3 days starting the day prior to each pemetrexed dose. Randomization was stratified by multiple baseline variables including KPS, histologic subtype (epithelial, mixed, sarcomatoid, other), and gender. The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival and additional efficacy outcome measures were time to disease progression, overall response rate, and response duration.

    A total of 448 patients received at least one dose of protocol-specified therapy; 226 patients were randomized to and received at least one dose of pemetrexed plus cisplatin, and 222 patients were randomized to and received cisplatin. Among the 226 patients who received cisplatin with pemetrexed, 74% received full supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 during study therapy, 14% were never supplemented, and 12% were partially supplemented. Across the study population, the median age was 61 years (range: 20 to 86 years); 81% were male; 92% were White, 5% were Hispanic or Latino, 3.1% were Asian, and <1% were other ethnicities; and 54% had a baseline KPS score of 90 to 100% and 46% had a KPS score of 70 to 80%. With regard to tumor characteristics, 46% had Stage IV disease, 31% Stage III, 15% Stage II, and 7% Stage I disease at baseline; the histologic subtype of mesothelioma was epithelial in 68% of patients, mixed in 16%, sarcomatoid in 10% and other histologic subtypes in 6%. The baseline demographics and tumor characteristics of the subgroup of fully supplemented patients was similar to the overall study population.

    The efficacy results from Study JMCH are summarized in Table 18andFigure 9.

    Table 18: Efficacy Results in Study JMCH

    *Hazard ratios are not adjusted for stratification variables.
    Not a pre-specified analysis.

    Efficacy Parameter

    All Randomized and Treated Patients
    (N=448)

    Fully Supplemented
    Patients
    (N=331)

    Pemetrexed/Cisplatin
    (N=226)

    Cisplatin
    (N=222)

    Pemetrexed/Cisplatin (N=168)

    Cisplatin
    (N=163)

    Median overall survival (months)

    12.1

    9.3

    13.3

    10.0

    (95% CI)

    (10.0-14.4)

    (7.8-10.7)

    (11.4-14.9)

    (8.4-11.9)

    Hazard ratio*

    0.77

    0.75

    Log rank p-value

    0.020

    NA

    Figure9

    Figure 9: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in Study JMCH

    Based upon prospectively defined criteria (modified Southwest Oncology Group methodology) the objective tumor response rate for pemetrexed plus cisplatin was greater than the objective tumor response rate for cisplatin alone. There was also improvement in lung function (forced vital capacity) in the pemetrexed plus cisplatin arm compared to the control arm.

  • 15 REFERENCES

    • 1. OSHA Hazardous Drugs. OSHA. [http://www.osha.gov/hazardous-drugs]
  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    How Supplied

    Pemetrexed Injection is supplied as a sterile single-dose vial containing clear colorless to yellow or green-yellow solution in a clear glass vial with a grey rubber closure, aluminum cap, and light blue flip-off cap

    Strength/Fill volume

    NDC number

    Pack style

    100 mg/4 mL

    NDC: 0781-3518-76

    Carton containing one (1) single-dose vial

    500 mg/20 mL

    NDC: 0781-3519-90

    Carton containing one (1) single-dose vial

    1,000 mg/40 mL

    NDC: 0781-3520-91

    Carton containing one (1) single-dose vial

    Storage and Handling

    Store solution at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

    Protect from light. Keep the vial in the carton box until the time of use.

    Pemetrexed Injection is a hazardous drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures [see References (15)].

  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).

    Premedication and Concomitant Medication: Instruct patients to take folic acid as directed and to keep appointments for vitamin B12 injections to reduce the risk of treatment-related toxicity. Instruct patients of the requirement to take corticosteroids to reduce the risks of treatment-related toxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Myelosuppression: Inform patients of the risk of low blood cell counts and instruct them to immediately contact their physician for signs of infection, fever, bleeding, or symptoms of anemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Renal Failure: Inform patients of the risks of renal failure, which may be exacerbated in patients with dehydration arising from severe vomiting or diarrhea. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for a decrease in urine output [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Bullous and Exfoliative Skin Disorders: Inform patients of the risks of severe and exfoliative skin disorders. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of bullous lesions or exfoliation in the skin or mucous membranes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

    Interstitial Pneumonitis: Inform patients of the risks of pneumonitis. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of dyspnea or persistent cough [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

    Radiation Recall: Inform patients who have received prior radiation of the risks of radiation recall. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of inflammation or blisters in an area that was previously irradiated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

    Increased Risk of Toxicity with Ibuprofen in Patients with Renal Impairment: Advise patients with mild to moderate renal impairment of the risks associated with concomitant ibuprofen use and instruct them to avoid use of all ibuprofen containing products for 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days following administration of Pemetrexed Injection [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.6), and Drug Interactions (7)].

    Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Advise females of reproductive potential and males with female partners of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 6 months after the last dose. Advise females to inform their prescriber of a known or suspected pregnancy. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 3 months after the last dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

    Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 1 week after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

    Manufactured by FAREVA Unterach GmbH for

    Sandoz Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540

  • PATIENT PACKAGE INSERT

    PATIENT INFORMATION
    Pemetrexed (pem-e-TREX-ed) Injection

    for intravenous use

    What is Pemetrexed Injection?
    Pemetrexed Injection is a prescription medicine used to treat:

    • a kind of lung cancer called non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed Injection is used:
      • o as the first treatment in combination with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy when your lung cancer with no abnormal EGFR or ALK gene has spread (advanced NSCLC).
      • o as the first treatment in combination with cisplatin when your lung cancer has spread (advanced NSCLC).
      • o alone as maintenance treatment after you have received 4 cycles of chemotherapy that contains platinum for first treatment of your advanced NSCLC and your cancer has not progressed.
      • o alone when your lung cancer has returned or spread after prior chemotherapy.
    •   Pemetrexed Injection is not for use for the treatment of people with squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer.
    • a kind of cancer called malignant pleural mesothelioma. This cancer affects the lining of the lungs and chest wall. Pemetrexed Injection is used in combination with cisplatin as the first treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma that cannot be removed by surgery or you are not able to have surgery.

    Pemetrexed Injection has not been shown to be safe and effective in children.

    Do not take Pemetrexed Injection if you have had a severe allergic reaction to any medicine that contains pemetrexed.

    Before taking Pemetrexed Injection, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

    • have kidney problems.
    • have had radiation therapy.
    • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Pemetrexed Injection can harm your unborn baby.
    •   Females who are able to become pregnant:
    •   Your healthcare provider will check to see if you are pregnant before you start treatment with Pemetrexed Injection.
    •   You should use effective birth control (contraception) during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 6 months after the last dose. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant or think you are pregnant during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection.
    •   Males with female partners who are able to become pregnant should use effective birth control (contraception) during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 3 months after the last dose.
    • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if pemetrexed passes into breast milk. Do not breastfeed during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection and for 1 week after the last dose.

    Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

    Tell your healthcare provider if you have kidney problems and take a medicine that contains ibuprofen. You should avoid taking ibuprofen for 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days after receiving treatment with Pemetrexed Injection.

    How is Pemetrexed Injection given?

    • It is very important to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with Pemetrexed Injection to lower your risk of harmful side effects.
      • o Take folic acid exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider 1 time a day, beginning 7 days (1 week) before your first dose of Pemetrexed Injection and continue taking folic acid until 21 days (3 weeks) after your last dose of Pemetrexed Injection.
      • o Your healthcare provider will give you vitamin B12 injections during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection. You will get your first vitamin B12 injection 7 days (1 week) before your first dose of Pemetrexed Injection, and then every 3 cycles.
    • Your healthcare provider will prescribe a medicine called corticosteroid for you to take 2 times a day for 3 days, beginning the day before each treatment with Pemetrexed Injection.
    • Pemetrexed Injection is given to you by intravenous (IV) infusion into your vein. The infusion is given over 10 minutes.
    • Pemetrexed Injection is usually given once every 21 days (3 weeks).

    What are the possible side effects of Pemetrexed Injection?
    Pemetrexed Injection can cause serious side effects, including:

    • Low blood cell counts. Low blood cell counts can be severe, including low white blood cell counts (neutropenia), low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia), and low red blood cell counts (anemia). Your healthcare provider will do blood tests to check your blood cell counts regularly during your treatment with Pemetrexed Injection. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have any signs of infection, fever, bleeding, or severe tiredness during your treatment with Pemetrexed Injection.
    • Kidney problems, including kidney failure. Pemetrexed Injection can cause severe kidney problems that can lead to death. Severe vomiting or diarrhea can lead to loss of fluids (dehydration) which may cause kidney problems to become worse. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a decrease in the amount of urine you make.
    • Severe skin reactions. Severe skin reactions that may lead to death can happen with Pemetrexed Injection. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you develop blisters, skin sores, skin peeling, or painful sores, or ulcers in your mouth, nose, throat or genital area.
    • Lung problems (pneumonitis). Pemetrexed Injection can cause serious lung problems that can lead to death. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get any new or worsening symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, or fever.
    • Radiation recall. Radiation recall is a skin reaction that can happen in people who have received radiation treatment in the past and are treated with Pemetrexed Injection. Tell your healthcare provider if you get swelling, blistering, or a rash that looks like a sunburn in an area that was previously treated with radiation.

    The most common side effects of Pemetrexed Injection when given alone are:

    • tiredness
    • nausea
    • loss of appetite

    The most common side effects of Pemetrexed Injection when given with cisplatin are:

    • vomiting
    • swelling or sores in your mouth or sore throat
    • constipation
    • low white blood cell counts (neutropenia)
    • low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia)
    • low red blood cell counts (anemia)

    The most common side effects of Pemetrexed Injection when given with pembrolizumab and platinum chemotherapy are:

    • tiredness and weakness
    • constipation
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • loss of appetite
    • nausea
    • rash
    • shortness of breath
    • cough
    • fever

    Pemetrexed Injection may cause fertility problems in males. This may affect your ability to father a child. It is not known if these effects are reversible. Talk to your healthcare provider if this is a concern for you.

    Your healthcare provider will do blood tests to check for side effects during treatment with Pemetrexed Injection. Your healthcare provider may change your dose of Pemetrexed Injection, delay treatment, or stop treatment if you have certain side effects.

    Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
    These are not all of the possible side effects of Pemetrexed Injection. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
    Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

    General information about the safe and effective use of Pemetrexed Injection.
    Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about Pemetrexed Injection that is written for health professionals.

    What are the ingredients in Pemetrexed Injection?
    Active ingredient: pemetrexed
    Inactive ingredients:

    sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, propylene glycol, water for injection. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added to adjust pH.

    Manufactured by FAREVA Unterach GmbH for

    Sandoz Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540

    For more information, call 1-800-525-8747.

    •   This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Issued: May 2022
  • Principal Display Panel – 4 mL

    NDC: 0781-3518-76

    Pemetrexed Injection

    100 mg/4 mL

    (25 mg/mL)

    Cytotoxic Agent

    For Intravenous Infusion Only After Dilution.

    Single-Dose Vial

    Discard unused Portion.

    Rx Only

    Sterile

    SANDOZ – A Novartis Division

    100mg-carton
  • Principal Display Panel – 20 mL

    NDC: 0781-3519-90

    Pemetrexed Injection

    500 mg/20 mL

    (25 mg/mL)

    Cytotoxic Agent

    For Intravenous Infusion Only After Dilution.

    Single-Dose Vial

    Discard unused Portion.

    Rx Only

    Sterile

    SANDOZ – A Novartis Division

    500mg-carton

  • Principal Display Panel

    NDC: 0781-3520-91

    Pemetrexed Injection

    1000 mg/40 mL

    (25 mg/mL)

    Cytotoxic Agent

    For Intravenous Infusion Only After Dilution.

    Single-Dose Vial

    Discard unused Portion.

    Rx Only

    Sterile

    SANDOZ – A Novartis Division

    1000mg-carton

  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    PEMETREXED 
    pemetrexed disodium injection, solution
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 0781-3518
    Route of AdministrationINTRAVENOUS
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    PEMETREXED DISODIUM (UNII: 2PKU919BA9) (PEMETREXED - UNII:04Q9AIZ7NO) PEMETREXED100 mg  in 4 mL
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    SODIUM THIOSULFATE (UNII: HX1032V43M)  
    HYDROCHLORIC ACID (UNII: QTT17582CB)  
    SODIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 55X04QC32I)  
    WATER (UNII: 059QF0KO0R)  
    PROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: 6DC9Q167V3)  
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 0781-3518-761 in 1 CARTON06/08/2022
    14 mL in 1 VIAL; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    NDANDA21465706/08/2022
    PEMETREXED 
    pemetrexed disodium injection, solution
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 0781-3519
    Route of AdministrationINTRAVENOUS
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    PEMETREXED DISODIUM (UNII: 2PKU919BA9) (PEMETREXED - UNII:04Q9AIZ7NO) PEMETREXED500 mg  in 20 mL
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    SODIUM THIOSULFATE (UNII: HX1032V43M)  
    HYDROCHLORIC ACID (UNII: QTT17582CB)  
    SODIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 55X04QC32I)  
    WATER (UNII: 059QF0KO0R)  
    PROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: 6DC9Q167V3)  
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 0781-3519-901 in 1 CARTON06/08/2022
    120 mL in 1 VIAL; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    NDANDA21465706/08/2022
    PEMETREXED 
    pemetrexed disodium injection, solution
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC: 0781-3520
    Route of AdministrationINTRAVENOUS
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    PEMETREXED DISODIUM (UNII: 2PKU919BA9) (PEMETREXED - UNII:04Q9AIZ7NO) PEMETREXED1000 mg  in 40 mL
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    SODIUM THIOSULFATE (UNII: HX1032V43M)  
    HYDROCHLORIC ACID (UNII: QTT17582CB)  
    SODIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 55X04QC32I)  
    WATER (UNII: 059QF0KO0R)  
    PROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: 6DC9Q167V3)  
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC: 0781-3520-911 in 1 CARTON05/25/2024
    140 mL in 1 VIAL; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    NDANDA21465706/08/2022
    Labeler - Sandoz Inc. (005387188)

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